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Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Islam. Kaaba. Becomes Political. Sects. Empire. Beliefs. Europe. Founding. Islam. India. Impact on Trade. Southeast Asia. Africa. Pre-Islamic Arab World. Bedouins Camel herding Agriculture Clan Identity Towns Long-distance trade Mecca. Pre-Islamic Arabia Economic role

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islam
Islam

Kaaba

slide2

Becomes Political

Sects

Empire

Beliefs

Europe

Founding

Islam

India

Impact on Trade

Southeast Asia

Africa

pre islamic arab world
Pre-Islamic Arab World
  • Bedouins
  • Camel herding
  • Agriculture
  • Clan Identity
  • Towns
  • Long-distance trade
    • Mecca
marriage and family
Pre-Islamic Arabia

Economic role

Milking camels

Weaving cloth

Raising children

Rural areas

Matrilineal

Polygamy for both sexes

Man paid dowry

Not veiled or secluded

Status determined by custom

Urban areas

Patrilineal

Male polygamy

Marriage and Family
founding
Founding
  • Muhammad
  • 622 CE
  • Hijrah—from Makkah to Medina
beliefs
Beliefs
  • Monotheistic
  • 5 Pillars of Islam
    • Alms-Zakat
    • Fasting
    • Prayer
    • Faith-Shahara
    • Haj
  • Jihad—
  • People of the Book—dhimmi status
sects
Sects
  • Shi’ia-bloodline
  • Sunni-elected
  • Sufis-mystical
    • Whirling Dervishes
empire building umayyad 661 750
Empire BuildingUmayyad-661-750
  • Sunni
  • Series of alliances bring stability to Islamic community
  • Capital—Damascus
    • Center of Learning
    • Exposed to Hellenistic traditions
  • Eastward to India and China
  • Westward to North Africa and Spain
  • Battle of Tours
  • Stressed political not religious aspect of office
slide9
Dar-al-Islam—lands ruled by Islam
  • United lands they ruled
    • Arabic official language
    • Minted Arabic currency
    • Road building
    • Postal routes
    • Civil service
    • Improved conditions for non-Muslims
  • Opposition from religious and political groups—Abbasids most powerful one
abbasids 750 1258
Capital Baghdad

Center of banking, commerce, crafts

Caliph Harun al-Rashid--high point

Battle of Talas River ends Tang spread

1258-Mongol assault

Abbasids750-1258
abbasid administration
Abbasid Administration
  • Ulama —learned official with religious knowledge
  • Qadis -judges set moral standards and resolved disputes
  • Relied on Persian techniques of administration
trade
Trade
  • Overland
  • Trade cities brought under Islamic control
  • Silk Routes
  • Maintenance of roads for military and administration
  • Camels and caravansaries
slide14
Maritime

Mediterranean and Indian Ocean Routes

Compass-China

Lateen Sail-Southeast Asia and India

Astrolabe-Hellenistic mariners

women
Muhammad’s wife a wealthy widow

Women’s rights

Contact with Syria and Persia

Veiling

Women
cultural influences
Persian

Administration

Al Ghazzali -denounced Greek philosophers

Language-literature, poetry

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

Greek

Philosophy

Arab

Ibn Sina [Avicenna]

Al Razi

Cultural Influences
europe
Europe
  • Spain—Moors
  • 732
  • Battle of Tours
turks
Seljuks 11th-14th century

Steppe people

Hired by weak Abbasid rulers to fight in army

1000 moved from central Asia into Middle East

Restored Sunni caliphate

Gained control of main trade routes

Used wealth to build an empire

Defeated Byzantines at Battle of Manzikert 1071

Conquest of Palestine led Pope Urban II to call for first crusade

Turks