Islam. Megan Baxter 3 rd block Honors English- nowacky. Origins of Islam. The religion of Islam was founded on the teachings of Muhammad in 622 who was believed to contact with the Islamic god, Allah. (Religion Library: Islam) Allah revealed to Muhammad the sacred text of Islam: The Quran
Islam Megan Baxter 3rd block Honors English- nowacky
Origins of Islam • The religion of Islam was founded on the teachings of Muhammad in 622 who was believed to contact with the Islamic god, Allah. (Religion Library: Islam) • Allah revealed to Muhammad the sacred text of Islam: The Quran • “Muhammad founded the first Islamic state, a theocracy (government ruled by a religious leader) in Medina, a city in Western Saudi Arabia located north of Mecca.” (HNN staff) • The Essential belief of Islam is that Allah is the one true God • Allah has no equal or partner (Religion Library: Islam)
Sunni VS. Shia • The religion of Islam is split on the beliefs of who should lead the nation of Islam. It is split into two different sects: Sunni and Shia Muslims. • Sunni: • The Sunni belief is that the leader should be chosen by election of those suitable for the position. (Huda) • Shia: • The Shia belief is that the leader must be a descendent from Muhammad himself. (Huda)
Sunni VS. Shia Cont. • Sunni: • After Muhammad some of the Muslims followed the prophet’s trusted advisor Abu Bakr. They follow the heirs of the “first four caliphs” (HNN staff). The heirs of the four caliphs ruled until the end of the Ottoman Empire. (HNN staff) • Shia: • Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, his closest relative were followed by them. Ali was one of the four caliphs and believed by them to be the only legitimate one.
The Five Pillars of Islam • The Five Pillars of Islam is one of the factors that unite the Shia and the Sunni Muslims together. • Shahadah • Only worship Allah • Salah • Pray five times daily • Zakah • Give alms to the poor • Swam • To fast • Hajj • Go to Hajj
Five Pillars of Islam: Shahadah • The message of the Shahadah is, “There is none other worthy of worship except for God and Muhammad is the messenger of God.” (The Five Pillars of Islam) • The declaration of this pillar means that the only purpose in life is to serve and obey God and all of his teachings of the gospel, which was accessible through Muhammad. (The Five Pillars of Islam) • Another factor of Shahadah is the belief in the Holy Books: • Torah (Taurut) – Revealed by the prophet Moses • Psalms (Zabur)- Revealed by the prophet David • Gospels (Injil) – Revealed by the prophet Jesus • *Qur’ran – Revealed by the prophet Mohammed
Five Pillars of Islam: Salah • A Muslim will have to pray five times daily facing Mecca. • These five prayers are: • Salat al-Fajr • Salat al-Zuhr • Salat al-Asr • Salat al-Maghrib • Salat al-Isha • The time of prayer is distributed throughout the day, first at dawn, afternoon, late afternoon, sunset and nightfall. (Five Pillars… Islamic Path)
Five Pillars of Islam: Zakah Zakah is the act of charity Every Muslim has the obligation to give to the poor and needy. The Muslims also do this acknowledging the fact that it increases “social welfare and economic growth.” (Five Pillars… Islamic Faith.) The word Zakah itself means, “ purification” and “growth.” (Five Pillars… Islamic Faith) It is also believed by the Muslims that one who gives charity will acquire an extra award from Allah.
Five Pillars of Islam: Sawm Every year, in the Ramadan Month the Muslims are obliged to withstand from food, drink, and sexual behavior, from the sunrise to sunset. And also during the Ramadan Month they must also fast from the negative behaviors such as “lust, greed, gossip and violence.” (Five Pillars… Islamic Path) The Muslims believe that when they withstand from the earthly things they come closer to Allah.
Five Pillars of Islam: Hajj The requirement of Hajj is that every able bodied and financially accessible Muslim should take the Pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lifetime. Hajj is also an opportunity for Muslims to unite as a nation and worship together. It is also a opportunity for “spiritual purification.” (Purpose of the Hajj) During the Hajj, all of those who attend are expected to be of good conduct with Allah in their thoughts and good works towards other Muslims.
The Hajj Cont. • The Umrah: In order for a an attending Muslim to be clean for Umrah, he/she baths and makes him/herself clean for the ritual of prayer. • Near sunrise this is required: • “a) He throws seven consecutive pebbles at Jamrah Al-Aqaba which is the closest monument to Makkah, saying Greatest," as he : "Allah is the throws each pebble. • b) He slaughters the sacrificial animal, eats some of it, and gives some to the poor. Slaughter is obligatory on the Mutamati and Qiran. • c) He shaves or clips his hair; shaving is preferable. A woman clips her hair the length of a finger tip. • These three should be done in the above order if convenient, but there is no restriction if one precedes another.” (How to Perfom…) • The pilgrim goes to the Prophet’s (Muhammad's) Mosque and prays in it.
Month of Ramadan “The Month of Ramadan takes place on the ninth month of the Islamic Calendar” (Ramadan) The Holy Month of Ramadan is based on the belief that the Qur'an was revealed at the time of Ramadan. During the festival the Muslims partake of two meals per day, one meal before sunlight and one after sunlight. Suhoor and Iftar. The duration of Ramadan lasts for 29-30 full days. It is decided by when the crescent moon is spotted
The Function of a Mosque • A Mosque serves as an important structure for the Islamic community. ( Cross Cultural Understanding) • Weekly, Muslims form together as a congregation and manage affairs. But daily an average Muslim will visit it at least once a day. In Muslim countries they visit it five times daily. • Praying in the Mosque involves touching the floor with your forehead, representing utmost submission towards Allah. • Encourages comfortable interaction with other Muslims • The Muslim believes that the benefits of going to a mosque are: • “Rekindles his spirituality” • “Strengthens his relationship with Allah” • “Strengthens his relationship with fellow Muslims” (Cross Cultural Understanding)
The Qur’an The Qur’an is the Holy Book of Islam. Believed to have been revealed by the angel Gabriel to the Prophet Mohammed over the space of 22 years. (Faith Club) The Qur’an was divided into 114 chapters by Muhammad. All of which (Besides chapter 9) begins with the phrase, “ In the name of God, the merciful and compassionate…” Muslims learn the Qur’an in it’s original language, Arabic.
Islam in Afghanistan The Afghan government is in extreme toil and instability in being able to hold up its people with stability. Ever since the Taliban had taken control of the Afghan gov’t. it has been a struggle to bind Afghanistan as one agreeing country. The Taliban, at the beginning was just a group of Islamic scholars. (Afghan Profile) By late 2001, the Taliban had 90% of control over Afghanistan. The leader of the Taliban was Osama Bin Laden, who ordered the bombings of the US embassy in Africa and the World Trade Centre on September 11Th 2001 Soon afterwards the Taliban were driven from power in the Afghanistan government. (Who are the Taliban?) Recently the Taliban have re-emerged and taken more control of Afghanistan
Afghan Life under the Taliban Under the Taliban in Afghanistan people were restricted from music and *kite flying. There was no shaving of beards, women were to remain at home and girls were restricted from many faculties, including school. And the study of Islam was relevant to most subjects, including chemistry. Far worse than the restrictions 0ver the period of four years, a civil war had killed thousands of people and forcing even more into exile. (Life Under the Taliban) In Kabul, Afghanistan, many warlords released destruction, including bombs, even on their on territories.
The view from behind a burka veil during the Taliban influence in Afghanistan.
Works Cited "Pillars of Islam." Islamic Path. N.p., 16 Feb. 2009. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. "How Long Does Ramadan Last." How Long Does Ramadan Last. Ed. D.greetings.com. D.greeting.com, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. Khako, Muhammad. "What Is the Role of Mosque? By Muhammad Khako." What Is the Role of Mosque? By Muhammad Khako. Cross Cultural Understanding, 2 Apr. 2008. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. History News Network." History News Network. George Mason University, 22 Feb. 2011. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. Who Are the Taliban?" BBC News. Ed. BBC. BBC, 01 Mar. 2012. Web. 03 Mar. 2013.
Works Cited Cont. "IslamiCity.com - The Pilars of Islam." The Pilars of Islam. Ed. IslamiCity. IslamiCity, 2 Mar. 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. "Library." Islam Origins, Islam History, Islam Beliefs. Ed. Religion Libraray. Religion Library, n.d. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. "Pillars of Islam." Islamic Path. N.p., 16 Feb. 2009. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. "Afghanistan Profile." BBC News. Ed. BBC. BBC, 02 May 2013. Web. 03 Mar. 2013. McKenzie, Jean. "Life under the Taliban." GlobalPost. Global Post, 7 Aug. 2009. Web. 03 Mar. 2013.