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Islam - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Islam. HISTORY & ORIGINS. Arabian Peninsula. Important Cities. Mecca & Yathrib (Medina). Kaaba. Muhammad. Prophet Gabriel orders him to preach Mecca = unsuccessful Yathrib = successful Becomes Medina “city of the prophet” Commemorated as Hejira Built an army and defeated Mecca.

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Presentation Transcript
history origins
HISTORY & ORIGINS
  • Arabian Peninsula
important cities
Important Cities
  • Mecca &

Yathrib (Medina)

muhammad
Muhammad
  • Prophet
  • Gabriel orders him to preach
  • Mecca = unsuccessful
  • Yathrib = successful
    • Becomes Medina“city of the prophet”
    • Commemorated as Hejira
  • Built an army and defeated Mecca
teachings 5 pillars
Teachings - 5 Pillars
  • 1 Shahadah
    • Declaration of faith

لآ اِلَـهَ اِلاَّ لله محمد رسول الله“La ilahailla Allah: Muhammadunrasulu Allah” –“No God but Allah: Muhammad is the prophet of Allah”

slide8

2 Salat (Salah)

    • Prayers
    • 5 times a day
    • Facing East
      • Mecca
slide9

3 Zakat

    • Tax (Charity)
    • 2.5 % of yearly income
slide10

4 Sawm

    • Fasting During Ramadan
    • Sunrise to sunset
slide11

5 Hajj

    • Pilgrimage to Mecca
    • Exceptions
      • Physical
      • Financial
slide12
Text
  • Koran (Quran)
    • Exact word of Godas revealed to Muhammad
the koran
The Koran
  • Mohammad’s teachings
    • Written by his followers
  • Torah and Bible
    • Have stories similar stories
  • Parables
  • Prophecy
conditions before islam
Conditions before Islam
  • 600’s A.D.
  • No Empire on the Arabian Peninsula-too harsh of an environment
  • People did come through the area to trade
mohammed
Mohammed
  • born 570 A.D.
  • poor family
  • Kuraish tribe, who dominate Mecca
    • controlling much of the religious pilgrim trade
  • raised by relatives-specifically an uncle
mohammed1
Mohammed
  • Commercial agent for a wealthy widow
    • supervising caravans from Mecca, north to Jerusalem
    • contact with both Jews and Christians
  • Made an impression on his boss and married her
    • retired to devote himself to his principal interest
    • religion
mohammed cont
Mohammed (cont.)
  • monogamous until his wife died
  • eventually married nine wives
  • last marriage at 53 to Aishah, daughter of a friend
  • wives: widows of friends or political marriages
career
Career
  • Early
    • Wasn’t successful
    • Threatened political, social, and religious structures
    • Economy in Mecca
    • Left Mecca
  • Hejira
    • 622 AD-Start of the Islamic calendar
    • Arrived in Medina
  • Return
    • Returns to Mecca and wins
the deal
The Deal
  • Mecca preserved as a holy city and place of pilgrimage
    • to preserve the economic prosperity
  • the Kaaba preserved as the central shrine
    • idols destroyed
    • story of its origins changed
    • pilgrimage as an act of faith
similarities to judaism and christianity
Similarities to Judaism and Christianity
  • monotheism (defined a bit differently)
  • insistence on the responsibility of human beings
  • final judgment and rewards
  • angels and spirits
  • practice of virtues
early problems
Early Problems
  • Succession- Who would follow Mohammed?
  • generated a permanent split in the Islamic community
    • Sunnis
    • Shi’as
divisions
Divisions
  • Sunni
  • 85-90% of Muslims
  • Any devout Muslim can be caliph
  • Shiites
  • 10-15% of Muslims
  • Descendants of Ali can be caliph (leader of Muslims)
  • Past-Ali and his son were assassinated (Shiites: Angry)
  • Present: Iraq-Sunni Minority, who gets the power. Attacks on each other bombings, fights.
why islam was successful
Why Islam was successful?
  • Did not force conversion, Jews and Christians had to pay “non-believer tax”
  • Muslims were united…to die in battle was a guarantee of eternal paradise
  • Islam emphasized human equality
  • How does that fit with what we know?