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Brain Anatomy and Function

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Brain Anatomy and Function. Anatomy of the Brain. Separated into right and left halves by the Interhemispheric Fissure. The Central Sulcus runs down & forward The Lateral Fissure runs backward & up. Frontal and Temporal Lobes. Thought Voluntary movement Speech motor

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anatomy of the brain
Anatomy of the Brain
  • Separated into right and left halves by the Interhemispheric Fissure
  • The Central Sulcus
  • runs down & forward
  • The Lateral Fissure runs backward & up
frontal and temporal lobes
Frontal and Temporal Lobes
  • Thought
  • Voluntary movement
  • Speech motor
  • Covers 1/3rd of area of the brain

Frontal

Temporal

  • Memory
  • Auditory function
parietal and occipital lobes
Parietal and Occipital Lobes
  • Sensation
    • Touch
    • Pressure
    • Pain
    • Temperature
    • Texture
  • Position/spatial orientation

Parietal

Occipital

  • Vision
  • Visual processes
    • Reading
medulla oblongata cerebellum and pons
Medulla Oblongata, Cerebellum, and Pons
  • Large Muscle Coordination
  • Balance
    • Walking, Writing

Medulla

Oblongata

Cerebellum

  • Respiration
  • Heart rate
  • Continuous with the spinal cord (2.5 cm)

Pons

  • Relay between the cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum
basal ganglia and thalamus
Basal Ganglia and Thalamus

“The Brakes”

  • Modifies movement on a minute-to-minute basis
  • Inhibits Movement
  • Coordination
  • Cortical relay
limbic system
Limbic System
  • Attention
  • Sensory gateway
  • Memory processing
  • Rage
  • Aggression
  • Sexuality
  • Appetite/Thirst
the nerve cell
The Nerve Cell

Synaptic junction

neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
  • Serotonin – major – emotions, judgment, eating and sleep disorders (associated with frontotemporal disorder)
  • Glutamate/GABA - Widespread, anxiety, sleep, (Valium targets this)
  • Dopamine – memory, mood, movement, Parkinson's Disease, psychiatric problems
  • Endorphins – relief of pain, (Morphine targets this)

Lichtman, J., et al Washington University 2002

serotonin
Normal functions

Emotions

Judgment

Sleep

Imbalances

Depression

Suicidal behavior

Anxiety

Impulsive behavior

Eating disorders

Serotonin

Glutamate/GABA

  • Normal functions
  • Involved in most facets of brain function
  • Imbalances
    • Memory disturbances
    • Sleep disturbances
    • Anxiety
dopamine
Normal functions

Mood

Movement

Memory

Imbalances

Movement disorders

Schizophrenia

Addiction

Dopamine

Endorphins

  • Normal functions
  • Relieve pain
  • Induce euphoria
normal aging brain
Normal Aging Brain
  • Brain weight and volume decrease
  • Grooves widen
  • Surface smoothes
  • Neurofibrillary tangles increase
  • Understanding normal variation is key to interpretation
brain glucose metabolism normal
Brain Glucose Metabolism –Normal
  • Normal brain tissue actively metabolizes glucose and its analogue (F-18 FDG)
  • Glucose metabolism provides 95% of the energy required for brain function
  • FDG is irreversibly trapped within brain cells in proportion to its use because it cannot be broken down or stored unlike glucose
fdg pet abnormal brain imaging
FDG-PET Abnormal Brain Imaging
  • Dementia
    • Memory loss
    • Cognitive Decline
  • Epilepsy
    • Localization of a seizure focus
  • Tumor Assessment
    • Radiation Necrosis vs Tumor
    • Grade
  • Objective Imaging Diagnosis of Movement Disorders
    • Huntington’s Disease
    • Parkinson’s Disease
dementia diagnosis current methods
Dementia Diagnosis:Current Methods
  • History and physical examination
      • Neurologist (Sens. = 50-80%)
      • Neuropsychologist / Neuropsychiatrist
  • Neuropsychological testing
  • MRI / CT
  • Blood testing
  • Functional Neuroimaging (SPECT/ PET/MR)
  • Sens.=80-90%
summary
Summary
  • Normal Brain Anatomy
  • Normal Brain Function
  • Current PET Brain Applications:
      • Diagnosis of Dementia
      • Seizure Localization
      • Tumor Assessment
      • Objective Imaging Diagnosis of Movement Disorders (not CMS approved)
contributors
Contributors
  • Rebecca Trunnell Hyman
    • Coordinator of PET Services
    • Clinical PET of West County - Creve Coeur, MO
  • Kevin L. Berger, M.D.
    • Assistant Professor of Radiology
    • Director of PET Imaging
    • Michigan State University – East Lansing, MI