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Neural Anatomy and Function. NERVOUS SYSTEMS. Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM p. 33. Brain Cerebral Cortex/Cerebrum Motor cortex Basal Ganglia/Diencephalon – sensory input Cerebellum – motor control Brain stem – sensory input Spinal Cord.

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nervous systems
NERVOUS SYSTEMS
  • Central nervous system
  • Peripheral nervous system
central nervous system p 33
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM p. 33
  • Brain
    • Cerebral Cortex/Cerebrum
      • Motor cortex
    • Basal Ganglia/Diencephalon – sensory input
    • Cerebellum – motor control
    • Brain stem – sensory input
  • Spinal Cord
peripheral nervous system
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • Somatic
    • Sensory (Gamma) Nerves
    • Motor (Alpha) Nerves
  • Autonomic [FYI]
    • Parasympathetic
    • Sympathetic
nerve anatomy
NERVE ANATOMY
  • A single nerve cell is called a neuron
  • A bundle or group of neurons make up a nerve
  • A nerve contains both afferent and efferent nerves
afferent neuron
Afferent Neuron
  • Carry impulse towards the CNS (e.g. sensory nerves)
  • Synapse

Towards CNS

efferent neuron
Efferent Neuron
  • Carry impulse away from the CNS (e.g. motor nerves)
  • Stimulatory
  • Inhibitory
neuron anatomy
NEURON ANATOMY
  • Dendrite
  • Cell Body
  • Axon
slide11
AXON
  • Conduction
  • Myelin sheath
  • Synapse
  • Neurotransmitter
conduction
CONDUCTION

Resting State: Na outside, K inside

conduction1
CONDUCTION

4. Na K Pump

1. Depolarization

3. Repolarization

2. Propagation

synapse1
SYNAPSE
  • Quick Time Movie
motor unit
MOTOR UNIT
  • Motor unit = one motor nerve + all the muscle fibers it innervates.
  • Types
    • Fast (alpha -1)
    • Slow (alpha -2)
slide22
3

1

2

motor unit1
MOTOR UNIT

Fast Fast Slow

muscle tension or force or strength
MUSCLE TENSION or FORCE or STRENGTH
  • Number of MU stimulated
  • Frequency of stimulation to each MU
  • Type of MU stimulated
volitional control motor cortex
Volitional Control (Motor Cortex)
  • Motor cortex
  • Motor neurons
  • Muscles
2 reflex control
2. Reflex Control
  • Afferent neuron
    • Sensory neuron
  • Efferent neuron
    • Motor neuron
proprioception kinesthesis p 37
PROPRIOCEPTION & KINESTHESISp. 37
  • Proprioception
    • The ability to sense the position and location and orientation and movement of the body and its parts
  • Kinesthesis
    • The ability to feel movements of the limbs and body
proprioception
PROPRIOCEPTION
  • Proprioceptors of the joints and skin
    • Meissner’s corpuscles
    • Ruffini’s corpuscles
    • Pacinian corpuscles
    • Krause’s end-bulbs
proprioception1
PROPRIOCEPTION
  • Proprioceptors of the muscles
    • Muscle spindles
    • Golgi tendon organs
muscle spindles1
Muscle Spindles
  • Provide proprioception
  • Sense the amount of stretch and the rate of stretch
  • Reflexes involving the muscle spindles is how we ‘feel’ a movement was done correctly
  • Spindles are a part of learning; we develop such reflexes as we practice skills and movements
golgi tendon organs1
Golgi Tendon Organs
  • Sensitive to muscle tension and active contraction
  • Protect muscle from excess contraction force
  • Stimulation of GTO an afferent impulse is sent to the central nervous system
  • In turn, efferent impulses are sent to the…
    • Agonist muscle causing it to relax
    • Antagonist muscle causing it to contract
neuromuscular summary
Neuromuscular Summary
  • An example from baseball.
  • A pitcher throws a curve ball to Sammy Sosa
  • Sammy’s eyes see the ball coming towards him and is able to identify the pitch as a curve ball
  • Sensory nerves (afferent) send that information to the CNS
  • In the CNS the sensory nerve synapses with motor nerves
  • The motor nerves in turn stimulates the muscles (deltoid and pectoralis major) required to swing the bat in the proper position to hit the ball
neuromuscular summary1
Neuromuscular Summary
  • Inside the fibers of the deltoid and pectoralis major, calcium is released
  • The calcium allows myosin heads to attach to actin
  • When the heads swivel the fibers of the deltoid muscle will shorten
  • The shortening of the fibers will pull on the humerus causing Sammy to swing the bat
  • The muscle spindles “tell” the CNS when the arm is in the correct position
  • If all goes as planned, the deltoid and pectoralis major will move his arms into a position to hit the ball
neuromuscular summary2
Neuromuscular Summary
  • An example from weight training.
  • A man is having his muscular strength tested on the bench press
  • For his first lift, 50 pounds is put on the bar
  • He will be using his pectoralis major muscle with has 500 motor units (300 slow twitch and 200 fast twitch) and his triceps muscle
  • His CNS stimulates 280 motor units leading to his pectoralis major muscle (180 slow twitch and 100 fast twitch)
  • End nerve ending stimulates a separate muscle fiber
neuromuscular summary3
Neuromuscular Summary
  • Calcium is released, myosin attaches to actin and swivels.
  • The pectoralis major and triceps muscles shortens and his arm extends outward raising the bar with 50 pounds on it.
  • After a few minutes of rest, 100 pounds is place on the bar
  • This time he stimulates 380 motor units (260 slow twitch and120 fast twitch)
  • The weight is successfully lifted
  • After a few minutes of rest, 150 pounds is place on the bar
neuromuscular summary4
Neuromuscular Summary
  • This time he stimulates 460 motor units (280 slow twitch and 180 fast twitch)
  • As the pectoralis major muscle contracts the GTO in the pectoralis major are stimulated
  • They stimulate a sensory nerve leading to the CNS
  • In the CNS, the sensory nerve synapses with a motor nerve that will inhibit (relax) the pectoralis major muscle
  • The man is unable to successfully lift the 150 pounds.
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