Brain Anatomy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Brain Anatomy

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  1. Brain Anatomy

  2. Brain • Divided into Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain, Spinal cord

  3. Cerebrum • Largest part • Forebrain/Midbrain • Left and right sides • Parts control senses (eg. paritallobe = sight)

  4. Cerebral Cortex • Sheet of tissue covering the outermost layer of the cerebrum • Aka Gray Matter • Gives brain wrinkled appearance • 2/3 folded up (more surface area = more neurons) • Divided into zones (7 Lobes)

  5. Forebrain • Frontal Lobe • Coordinating motor movements • Higher cognitive skills (planning/organizing) • Responsible for personality/emotional makeup • Parietal lobe • Left side = attention/language • Right side = senses/space

  6. Forebrain • Occipital Lobe • Vision – recognition of shapes/colors • Temporal Lobe • Auditory Information • Information integration • Helps form hippocampus (short term memory)

  7. Forebrain

  8. Forebrain • Basal Ganglia • Cerebral nuclei deep inside cortex • Thalamus (inner region) • Prioritizes and sends information to cerebral cortex • Hypothalamus (inner region) • Controls appetities, defensive/reproductive behaviors, sleep-wakefulness (circadian rhythms)

  9. Forebrain

  10. Midbrain • Midbrain • 2 pairs of small hills – colliculi • Viusual/auditory reflexes • Relays this info to thalamus • Reward mechanisms/mood

  11. Hindbrain • Hindbrain • Pons and Medulla Oblongata • Respiration/heart rhythms/blood glucose levels • Cerebellum • 2 hemispheres like Cerebrum • Automatic Programs (complex movements) • Coordination • Balance/posture (precise movements) • Pavlovianlearning (learned response to neutral stimulus)

  12. Hindbrain

  13. Hindbrain

  14. Spinal Cord • Extension of brain through vertebral column • Receives sensory info from all parts of the brain • Controls reflex responses (pain) • Generates nerve impulses to control muscles

  15. Spinal Cord

  16. Nervous System • Central nervous system (CNS) • Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain (protected by skull) • Spinal cord (protected by vertebral column) • Peripheral Nervous system (PNS) • Nerves/small concentrations of gray matter (gangalia) • white matters tracts connect gray matter regions in between (like train)

  17. Nervous System • Specific functions • Brain sends messages via spinal cord to peripheral nerves (control internal organs/muscles) • Somatic Nervous system • CNS to parts of sensory organs (including skin) • Autonomic Nervous system • CNS to internal organs • Made of Sympathetic nervous system and Parasympathetic

  18. Autonomic Nervous System • Sympathetic Nervous System • Mobilizes energy/resources during stress/arousal (fight/flight) • Parasympathetic Nervous System • Conserves energy/resources during relaxed times

  19. Experiment • Wink • Raise your hand • Kick the person in front of you • Stick your tongue out and lick one side of your mouth

  20. Left Hemisphere • Science skills • Reasoning skills • Math skills • Organized • Systematic • Objective

  21. Right Hemisphere • Art • Music • Imagination • Creative • Intuitive • Subjective

  22. Left vs Right • Communicate/work together over Corpus Callosum

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