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Transnationl Perspectives: Migration and Immigration, “Where is the Tale and Where is the Dog?”  . Chon: A true Fronterizo. Major Ideas. Borders are Historical and Permeable Except for iron curtains for a Period of Time.

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transnationl perspectives migration and immigration where is the tale and where is the dog

Transnationl Perspectives: Migration and Immigration, “Where is the Tale and Where is the Dog?”  

major ideas
Major Ideas
  • Borders are Historical and Permeable Except for iron curtains for a Period of Time.
  • Transborder Regional Political Economies drive Investment and Populations.
  • Transborder Markets create opportunities and problems.
  • Transborder Populations go where the money is.
  • Sorry, no, it isn’t a wash.
  • Being Rational is better than being Nuts.
  • Solutions are where you least expect them.
multiple borders immigration migration and refugees
Multiple Borders: Immigration, Migration, and Refugees
  • Railroads, Mining, Agriculture, Construction1880s on
  • Kin Networks: The Sonoran Connection: Federico Ronstadt and Manuel Velez Escalante
  • The Mexican Revolution:890,371 Mexican immigrants came to the United States between July 1910 and July 1920; 60,000 undocumented in 1920 alone. Consequence:
  • Repatriation: Involuntary and Voluntary: Cardenas and technical Chicanos. Tony Salazar
  • Border Economies: WW II and the Bracereo Movements and Highways and Railroads. Strikes, stuggles, and war.
  • Post 1960 Economies: the Maquiladoras, Transborder Trade, Population Movements
the present
The Present
  • Capital and People: the great economic and demographic shift e.g. : 9,154,958 pedestrian border crossings in 2003 in Arizona alone; 2004: $10 billion road commerce; $2.5 rail , San Diego/San Ysidro 32 million crossings in the same period.
  • Structural Readjustments: U.S.–Mexico trade has grown exponentially since the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
    • From $89.5 billion in 1993 to $275.3 billion in 2004, a threefold increase.
    • U.S. – Mexico surface transportation trade totaled $24.1 billion in August, up 16.0 percent compared to August 2005 . 
    • Americans are the biggest investors in Mexico, further evidence of NAFTA pulling the two countries together. Since 1994, the U.S. has accounted for 62 percent of all foreign direct investment in Mexico. See NAFTA TABLE.
the present1
The Present
  • Remittances: From 3 billion dollars in 1990 to 25 billions in 2007 and the second largest source of foreign exchange for Mexico after maquladoras.
  • 2007 Remittances were 2 percent less: impact of 9/11, siphoning through Az, more enforcement at all levels; normal cycle of return, reduced travel: $3,500 for coyotes. Consequence will return anyway.
the present2
The Present
  • The neo-liberal policies of the Mexican regime including the elimination of credit to rural farmers, ejidos, and cooperatives and the privatization of ejido lands export monocroping: 40% of rural Mexico, No Transition from Corn to Strawberries—no subsidies. El compadre de Sinaloa
  • Creation of Border Industries: 1965 on SEE BORDER TABLES
  • Service and agricultural labor markets:14K carpenters needed in Phoenix alone in 2005.
  • Institutional Facilitators: Commissions, Organizations, Universities: 70 projects at ASU alone.
mexican origin population 67 of the following
Mexican Origin Population: 67% of the Following
  • Figure 7 Projections of the Resident Population by Race, Hispanic Origin, And Nativity: Middle Series, 2025-50 and to 2100.
  • 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 2100
  • T 61,433   68,167   75,289    82,691   90,343 98,228 190,330
  • % 18.2     19.4      20.7      21.9      23.1 24.3 33.3
  • N 44,394   50,343    56,762    63,629    70,913 78,598 172,584
  • %   72.3     73.9      75.4      76.9      78.5 80.0 90.7
  • F 17,038   17,824    18,526    19,061    19,429 19,269 17,746
  • % 27.7     26.1      24.6      23.1      21.5 20.0 9.3
  • 2025 Mexican Origin Population: 37 M and 2050 slightly less than 60 million; Mexico will number 160 Million in 2050. In 2100, the population in Mexico will be 214 million and in the U.S. over 114 million or less than half of Mexico’s. # Projections already dated since by 2050 Mexican-origin of the U.S. population will number 68.7 million.
wealth creation hispanic owned businesses
Wealth Creation: Hispanic Owned Businesses
  • The number of Hispanic-owned businesses grew 31 percent between 1997 and 2002 — three times the national average for all businesses The nearly 1.6 million Hispanic-owned businesses generated nearly $222 billion in revenue, up 19 percent from 1997 — Survey of Business Owners: Hispanic-Owned Firms: 2002, released March 21, 2006 by the U.S. Census Bureau.
  • In 2002, nearly 3-in-10 Hispanic-owned firms operated in construction and other services, such as personal services, and repair and maintenance.
  • In 2002, firms owned by people of Mexican origin accounted for more than 44% of all Hispanic owned firms.
wealth creation hispanic owned businesses1
Wealth Creation: Hispanic Owned Businesses
  • There were 29,184 Hispanic-owned firms with receipts of $1 million or more.
  • There were 1,510 Hispanic-owned firms with 100 employees or more, generating more than $42 billion in gross receipts.
  • States with the fastest rates of growth for Hispanic-owned firms between 1997 and 2002 included New York (57 percent), Rhode Island and Georgia (56 percent each), Nevada and South Carolina (48 percent each).
  • Counties with the highest number of Hispanic-owned firms were Los Angeles County, Calif. (188,472); Miami-Dade County, Fla. (163,188); Harris County, Texas (61,934); and Bronx County, N.Y. (38,325).
  • The number of businesses owned by Hispanic women grew by 39 percent nationwide, to an estimated 470,344, in the five-year period that ended in 2002. That compares with about 9 percent growth for other businesses, according to the Center for Women’s Business Research, which draws its estimates from U.S. Census data.
wealth creation self employment
Wealth Creation: Self-Employment
  • Self-employment by Latinos grew 41 percent between 2000 and 2003, while overall self-employment grew at 6.2 percent. And Latina business surged 62.4 percent for the seven years that ended 2004, while the number of all businesses grew just 9 percent.

18 percent of Arizona Hispanic-owned businesses generated revenues of less than $50,000, 6 percent reported annual revenue exceeding $50 million. • 62 percent are owned by men, 38 percent by women. • 12 percent conduct business internationally. However, even those indicated on average that 65 percent of their revenues come from within Arizona.• One in three Hispanic businesses is started by an immigrant. • Thirty-three percent of business owners are college graduates or higher. That compares with 30 percent of Hispanic business owners nationally and 43 percent of the total business population.

  • .
  • In Arizona, the number of Latina-owned companies grew by 58.3 percent during that same time, to 14,538. And they generated nearly $726.9 million in sales from 1997 to 2002, up 10.6 percent.
  • Business leaders in Arizona say more and more are breaking the $1 million mark.
  • Among the multimillion-dollar business successes in Arizona are Josie Ippolito of Phoenix-based La Canasta Mexican Food Products Inc., Rosa Cantor of Mesa-based Creative Human Resources Concepts, Carmen Bermudez of Tucson-based Mission Management & Trust Co., Elizabeth Gonzalez-Gann of Tucson-based JanCo Janitorial and Stella Echave Burke of Phoenix-based SchoolCraft.Business, February 13, 2005
  • The proportion of all legal foreign-born residents who have become naturalized U.S. citizens rose to 52% in 2005, the highest level in a quarter of a century and a 14 percentage point increase since 1990, according to an analysis by the Pew Hispanic Center. Mexicans still have a comparatively lower tendency to become U.S. citizens, but the number of naturalized citizens from Mexico rose by 144% from 1995 to 2005—the sharpest increase among immigrants from any major sending country.
  • Among Mexican-Americans with two U.S.-born parents but three or more foreign-born grandparents, only 17 percent spoke fluent Spanish. Among those with only one or two foreign-born grandparents, Spanish fluency dropped to 7 percent.
  • Only 5 percent of Mexican-Americans with U.S.-born parents and U.S.-born grandparents spoke Spanish fluently.
  • Among the third generation of Mexican-Americans, 96 percent prefer to speak English in their homes.
  • Study: “Use of Spanish language dies quickly among generations of Hispanic immigrants,” The Associated Press. Published: September 13, 2006 from Massey and Bean (2006).
  • Yes immigrants and undocumented migrants drive wages down for a while but mostly against other immigrants.
  • After legalization wages rise 15%.
  • Therefore a different approach to labor sector a must.


The current political action whirling around the illegal immigration problem of the U.S.A. has motivated me to write this article. First, let’s stop referring to illegal Mexican immigrants as Hispanics. They are mostly Mexican Indians. Not American Indians, but Mexican Indians. Speaking Spanish does not, make you Spanish anymore than speaking English makes you English. The United States solved its American Indian problem a long time ago. Mexico has an Indian problem they seem unable to solve. Their latest attempt seems to be to saddle the U.S A. with their Mexican Indian problem. American Indians have for the most part been confined to Indian Reservations while Mexican Indians run amok in our midst. If Indians are needed to do jobs in the U.S.A., let’s give those jobs to American Indians who most certainly can benefit from them. Any arguments for use of Mexican Indians can easily be countered with arguments for use of American Indians. Let Mexico keep its Indians and live with their problem until it can solve it. The U.S. A. is not responsible for the problems of other Nations, although a lot of those who covet and hate us would like to make it so.

The Catholic Church is responsible for Mexico’s problems as it is for the problems of all Catholic Countries.

wrap up on the tale
Wrap Up on the Tale
  • Where is the tale?--It’s in the history!
  • Where is the tale?--It’s in the transborder economy!
  • Where is the tale?—It’s in the people!
  • Where is the tale?—It’s in a recognized regional transborder economy including not excluding labor!
  • Where is the dog?—It’s in the easy fix!—walls, militarization, round ups, the Arpaio approach, defeat of every child now left behind, educational restrictions, health care eliminated, and in the hateful and emotional expressions like those shown and their victims. THERE IS THE DOG!
victims of the dog
Victims of the Dog
  • Manuel Espinoza Vasquez: An American Civil Life
u s citizen israel correa with detail from his mcso booking report which indicates an mcso ice hold
U.S. citizen Israel Correa, with detail from his MCSO booking report, which indicates an “MCSO ICE Hold.”