A Tale of Two Cities A Tale of Two Wars • Persian War • Athens & Sparta vs. Persian Empire • Peloponnesian War • Athens vs. Sparta
Brief History of Greece • The first great civilization in Greece and Crete was the Minoan (2000 BCE – 1400 BCE). • Around 1400 BCE, the Mycenaean civilization supplanted the Minoan, and dominated Greece until about 1100 BCE, when barbarians known as Dorians invaded.
The Hellenic Era • Founding of Mycenae on the Peloponnesus (2000-1250 B.C.) • Mycenae (Greeks) battledfor control of the Aegean Sea with Troy Trojan War
Emergence of the Polis, or Greek City-State • Starting around 800 BCE a new civilization, the Hellenic, became dominant in Greece. • By 750 B.C. city-states began to form • The Hellenic civilization was composed of two strands, the Dorian and the Ionian. • This civilization gave rise to a new form of social/political organization: the polis.
The Polis • The polis was an independent, self-governing city of between 50,000 and 300,000 people. • Several dozen polises (Greek “poleis”) dotted the Greek countryside • In each polis, politics, religion, and social life were closely intertwined.
Types of Government • Two types of government were used in the Greek Polises. • The Dorians generally had an oligarchic form of government. • The Greek word oligarchy means rule by the few. • The Ionians developed the first democratic form of government. • Democracy means rule by the people.
Sparta and Athens • Generally speaking, the Doriansdepended upon agriculture, while the Ionians were seafarers and merchants. • The two primary poleis were Sparta and Athens. • Sparta was Dorian, oligarchic, and had an agriculture-based economy. • Athens was Ionian, democratic, and depended on seafaring and trade.
Background History • The Greek City-States under the leadership of Athens defeated the Persian Empire • Athens is acknowledged as the leading Greek state • However, as Thucydides relates in his history, Athenians increasingly fear Sparta as a competitor and believe they must increase Athen’s power and subjugate Sparta
Athens and Sparta were both poleis (plural of ‘polis.’) • Both were city-states, independent, with their own sub-culture and form of governance. • No “capital city” of Greece • While you were Greek--and proud of it--your primary allegiance and loyalty were towards your city-state • Many city-states in Greece and elsewhere. • Athens and Sparta mentioned the most because they emerged as the most powerful ones.
TERMS • Monarchy • Rule by a king • Oligarchy • Rule by a small group of people. Usually elites bound together by interests and wealth. • Aristocracy • Rule by a small group of people, but in the classical definition, they’re chosen for their virtue and wise rule (though this wasn’t always the case).
TERMS • 4. Tyranny • Rule by a individual with absolute power who took power by force, sometimes with popular support • Acropolis • Center and citadel of city-state. Literally means “high city” or “city at the top.” • Usually refers to the one in Athens today • Agora • An open public area acting as a center of public life and also the marketplace
Helot • Land-bound serfs that worked Spartan land • From surrounding land of Laconia and Messenia that were conquered. • Owned by the state and not individual masters--masters could not sell them. • Sparta got half of the helot’s crops. • Significantly outnumbered the citizens. • The potential threat they presented was another reason why the Spartans had such a potent army • Spartans were reluctant to fight too far from Sparta lest the helots act up
Spartan Values Strength Duty Discipline Athenian Values Individuality Beauty Freedom Different Values
Athens-A city of the Wise • City located on southern portion of the Greek peninsula, not on the Peloponnesus • A city run by thinkers and known for both its military might and wisdom in government and battle • Appropriately named after Athena, goddess of wisdom in battle and counsel
Athens-Evolution of Democracy • Around 1300-700, Athens is ruled by kings. • Over time it changes to an aristocracy (a few powerful, elite rule), • Then a tyranny (one person takes control) • Finally--by 450--a democracy (rule by many)
Athens-Democratic Principles • New, democratic ideas emerge from Athenian culture and society: • Direct Democracy: Citizens elect their representatives • Public Debate: Becomes an art in Athens to discuss and argue specifics of government • Duties of the Citizen: All citizens have responsibilities such as voting, participating in the government process
Athens famous for being primary basis of Western Civilization • Its democracy wasn’t always constant, and • Its form slightly different than what we’re familiar with. • Athens originally a kingdom which morphed into more of an aristocracy that became unstable, partially due to laws being oral and arbitrary • In 621 BC, Draco was appointed to codify the laws • Unpopular move because the laws (both as they already existed and were codified by Draco, but also most especially as designed by Draco) were extremely harsh.
More on Draco… • Death was the penalty for even minor crimes, like stealing vegetables. • Draco claimed that this was an appropriate punishment and if something even worse were found, he would have applied to greater crimes. • Different classes were also treated differently – debtors could be sold into slavery if in debt to a higher class. • An upside is that murder was punished by the state instead of by blood-feud vendettas. • It is from Draco that the term ‘draconian’ derives.
Solon • The Athenian lawmaker that first established the basis of civil democracy • Draco’s constitution wasn’t working out too well and in 594 BC, Solon revised it (almost completely). • He threw out all of Draco’s laws except those concerning homicide. • He had to strike a balance between the concerns of the aristocracy and those of the poor. • The poor were disgruntled at the possibility of they and their families being sold into slavery if they were in debt to an aristocrat. • The aristocrats wanted to prevent a revolution and keep their wealth (and their skin).
Some reforms: • Debt-slavery was abolished. Anybody who had been sold into slavery due to debt was liberated. • All outstanding debts were abolished. • Death penalty only for murder. • Classes were based on income, not birth • Pentakosiomedimnoi: Those whose land produced 500 bushels per annum • Hippeis: Those who were worth 300 bushels • Zeugitai: Those who were worth 200 bushels • Thetes: Manual laborers. • Move was important because it helped break the power of hereditary aristocracy
Some reforms cont. • Introduced trial by jury • Set up new system of government • Included a third class in the Boule (council of 400 – 100 from each of the four tribes) • After the new laws published and official, he left Athens for 10 years to avoid temptation to become a tyrant though he was effectively one in making the laws • Went touring. • Neither the poor nor the rich of Athens happy about new laws at first • the aristocrats had debts to them abolished and the poor didn’t get more wealth, but they liked them over time.
Peisistratus(Hippocrates’s son) • Mentee of Solon • Became leader of Athens’ poor in 565 BC • Initial attempts at seizing control of Athens failed • Seized power in 560 BC, Tyrant by 546 BC. • Made popular reforms. • Reduced taxation • Introduced festivals • Increased trade and commerce • Produced coin money • Beautified the city
Peisistratus cont. • Had official copies of the Iliad & Odyssey written. • Helped the poor, gave them jobs through public works, • Poor were satisfied & supported him. • Preserved the democratic institutions, but loaded upper bodies with family & cronies. • When he first took power in 560 BC, it was through cunning deception. Did it again later. • Solon urged the Athenians to resist Peisistratus, but they were too cowardly and Peisistratus too powerful. • Solon himself openly opposed Peisistratus.
Cleisthenes • Took power with Spartan help after Peisistratus’s son Hippias was exiled • Reformed the government • Previously, there were multiple tribes and there was conflict among the city folk, hill folk, and plain folk. • Cleisthenes organized ten entirely new tribes each composed of people from the three regions and of different family tribes. • Broke old tribal or class loyalties & reoriented people towards the state. • Solon’s council of 400 became the Council of 500, 50 people from each new tribe.
Cleisthenes cont. • Assembly became main governing body of Athens and dealt with day to day affairs. • Anybody was eligible to serve for one year and it was expected that all male citizens would serve eventually. • Also served as a supreme court / jury, except for murder cases and religious matters • --those remained to the Areopagus) • With the establishment of the assembly, Athens became a representative democracy. • The citizens themselves ran it.
Four Reformers • Draco (621 B.C.) • Written code of laws • Solon (594 B.C.) • Eliminated debt slavery • Peisistratus (546 B.C.) • Caters to peasants • Cleisthenes (508 B.C.) • Council of 500
Six Steps to Democracy • Outlawed Slavery • Reduce nobility • Redistribute land • Assembly • Council of 500 • Ostracism
Women • Women didn’t have the same rights as in Sparta • Expected to take care of the home • Boys were taught reading and writing and • Girls were taught domestic skills by slaves: like spinning and sewing • Not allowed out of the house except nearby travels • Main purpose was to produce healthy children • Unusual considering that women played an important role in some religious rites and the city’s patron goddess was Athena
Women cont. • Women could be educated if they were Hetaerae • A bit like Japanese geishas • Educated to entertain men with good conversations at parties • Learned physical talents, like dancing • Some forced into prostitution • Despite public social discrimination, their opinions were often respected by men • Pericles’s mistress Aspasia was a hetaera
Slavery • Practiced throughout Greece and in Athens • Rules governing it differed from city-state to city-state. • Slaves usually barbarians, typically captured in war. • Others were born slaves or their free parents sold them into slavery for money. • Considered by some an abomination to enslave a fellow Greek. • Greeks could be slaves, but many free Greeks didn’t like the idea. • Treatment different than that associated with American slavery.
Slavery cont. • Relatively well-treated in Athens when compared with other places. • Couldn’t slap a slave because you might inadvertently hit a citizen instead. • A master could beat his slave, though. • Testimony was taken only under torture. • Could buy freedom or earn through fighting in war. • Masters could free their slaves. • Even then, though, they couldn’t be citizens and there were still conditions on them. • In other city-states, treatment was much worse.
Sparta It was here: SPARTA
Sparta- A City of Warriors • Those who lived around Sparta lived vastly different lives. • They were more focused on war and building up strength to fight • An early slave revolt causes the Spartans to create strict laws that demanded public allegiance to the state. • Although they did have artistic culture, much of their energy was spent tuning their military skills
Sparta- Rise of the Oligarchy • olig (few or little in Greek) arche (rule) • Rule by a few • Sparta develops a system where either the city-state was controlled by a king or by an oligarchy • Citizens are not encouraged to speak freely, the few who rule were usually powerful military leaders.
In Greek, Spartans known asLacedaemonians • Lacedaemon was the name of the city-state while Sparta was the ancient town • According to legend, founded by Lacedaemon, son of Zeus and Taygete (a nymph) • Controlled most of southern Peloponnese • Argos & Arcadia were main rivals on the Peloponnese
Plutarch, Greek Biographer on Spartans “The women did not bathe the babies with water, but with wine, making it a sort of test of their strength. For they say that the epileptic and sickly ones lose control and go into convulsions, but the healthy ones are rather toughened like steel and strengthened in their physique. The nurses displayed care and skill: they did not use swaddling-bands, making the babies free in their limbs and bodies. They also made them sensible and not fussy about their food, not afraid of the dark or frightened of being left alone, not inclined to unpleasant awkwardness or whining. So even some foreigners acquired Spartan nurses for their children.”
Plutarch on Spartans "They learned reading and writing for basic needs, but all the rest of their education was to make them well-disciplined and steadfast in hardship and victorious in battle. For this reason, as boys grew older, the Spartans intensified their training, cutting their hair short and making them used to walking barefoot and for the most part playing naked. When the boys reached the age of twelve, they no longer had tunics to wear, but got one cloak a year. Their bodies were tough and unused to baths and lotions. They enjoyed such luxury only a few special days a year. They slept, in packs, on beds which they got together on their own, made from the tops of the rushes to be found by the river Eurotas. These they broke off with their bare hands, not using knives."
Culture • Sparta was a military culture • The entire Spartan culture went towards developing and fielding a strong army • This was to preserve itself as well as to keep down the helots • Children were taught at home until they were seven • At Seven, began their training • Exercises for them and all ages were always in the nude. • At 13, they were dropped off in the woods in groups with nothing…had to survive (without theft)
Spartan Military • Men married at the age of 20 • Had to live in barracks for ten years • If they wanted to see their wives, they had to escape • At the age of 30, men could finally move home and were full citizens • Still ate every meal in the military dining hall • Food was sparse and plain
MILITARY SERVICE • Began military service at 20 • Soldiers not allowed to trade or hold non-military occupations. • These were done by a class called the periokoi, free non-citizen inhabitants of Sparta. • Exercised full rights and duties of citizens at 30. • Weren’t free from military service until 60. • To help ensure the physical superiority of their people, babies were bathed in wine shortly after birth. • If they survived, they were taken to elders. • If the elders deemed the baby unfit, it was left exposed to die on a hillside (other city-states practiced exposure). Spartan mother to her son as he goes off to war: “Return with your shield, or on it.”
Government • Two (hereditary)Kings, Five Ephors, Gerousia & Apella • Two kings equal in power & exercised various duties. • Eventually became less powerful/important, • were primarily generals • Five Ephors: council elected for one year by the Apella. All citizens were eligible. • Gerousia: (Senate) – a council of 30 elders (over 60 yrs) • Elected for life by the Apella. • Could veto the Apella. • The Apella (lower legislative body). • Every citizen over 30 could attend. • Votes were taken by shouts.
Women • More independent than in other city-states • Learned reading/writing • Girls given similar harsh physical training as the boys • Many domestic tasks were left to the helots & periokoi • Received same amount/quality of food as boys • Could own/control property and • Could overtake husband’s property while he was @ war. • Expected to defend it too and to put down revolts. • Not rushed into bearing children. • Husbands also allowed other men to bed their wives and produce children. • May have practiced polyandry.
Sparta- Athens in Conflict • Each city had a vastly different social and government structure. • Although they agreed on issues such as the limited role of women and the role of slaves, they had many disagreements • Athenians were interested in military strength, but also in art and culture. • Spartans were only interested in military power. • This type of rift leads to fighting across the Peloponnesus.
The Persian Wars Athens & Sparta vs Persian Empire
The Greeks at War Between 500 and 400 B.C. the Greeks fought several wars. Two were against the powerful Persian Empire to the east of Greece. Then a civil war broke out among the city-states of Greece.
Why did the Persians invade Greece? In 519 B.C. the Persians conquered a group of people who lived in Asia Minor called the Ionian Greeks. AGH! Those Greeks will pay for this We’re on the way Help! In 499 B.C. the Ionian Greeks asked the mainland Greeks to help them rebel against the Persians. Athens sent warships to help them, but they were not strong enough to defeat the Persian army. This made the Persian King, Darius, very angry with Greece.