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Unit 6. Ups and Downs: World War I, the Jazz Age, and the Great Depression. Emigration VS. Immigration. Emigration---the act of leaving one’s country to settle in another country. Immigration---the act of moving into a new country. Push and Pull Factors of Immigration.

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unit 6

Unit 6

Ups and Downs:

World War I, the Jazz Age, and the

Great Depression

emigration vs immigration
Emigration VS. Immigration

Emigration---the act of leaving one’s country to settle in another country.

Immigration---the act of moving into a new country.

w here d id the immigrants come from
Where did the Immigrants come from?
  • Before 1890 most immigrants came from Britain, Ireland, Scotland, Germany, Norway and Sweden.
where did the immigrants come from
Where did the Immigrants come from?
  • After 1890 through the early 1900s the immigrants came from Italy, Greece, Poland, Austria, Hungary, Turkey, and Russia.
where did these immigrants settle
Where did these immigrants settle?
  • Irish and Italians settled in New York City of Boston, Massachusetts
where did these immigrants settle1
Where did these immigrants settle?
  • Germans settled in Cincinnati, Ohio and Milwaukee, Wisconsin
where did these immigrants settle2
Where did these immigrants settle?
  • Polish immigrants settled in Chicago, Illinois and Cleveland, Ohio
m a i n causes of world war i
M A I N Causes of World War I

MILITARISM

  • A nation’s policy to maintain strong armed forces
    • Great Britain and Germany raced to have the largest navies.
    • France, Russia, and Germany competed in building powerful armies.
m a i n causes of world war i1
M A I N Causes of World War I

ALLIANCES

  • The formation of military agreements among nations.
    • Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy formed the Triple Alliance in 1882.
    • Great Britain, France, and Russia formed the Triple Entente in 1907.
m a i n causes of world war i2
M A I N Causes of World War I

IMPERIALISM

  • A nation’s attempt to gain control of weaker nations.
    • European nations divided much of Africa into colonies in order to obtain raw material and sell goods
    • European nations forced China to grant them trading rights
m a i n causes of world war i3
M A I N Causes of World War I

NATIONALISM

  • Extreme loyalty to a nation and concern for its welfare.
    • National groups in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) wanted independence.
    • European nations sought to regain lost territories and/or add land.
assassination
Assassination
  • Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated and Serbia was blamed.
who were the allied powers
Who were the ALLIED Powers?
  • Great Britain
  • France
  • Belgium
  • Russia
  • Serbia
who were the central powers
Who were the CENTRAL Powers
  • Germany
  • Austria-Hungary
  • Bulgaria
  • Ottoman Empire (present day known

as Turkey)

lusitania may 1915
Lusitania---May 1915
  • The Lusitania was a British coal-burning steamer that had already crossed the Atlantic one hundred times, and in 1907, the year of her maiden voyage, the Lusitania, had set a speed record for transatlantic crossings.
  • The British government, inspired by a German challenge to Britannia’s supremacy of the seas, loaned the Cunard Line the money to build this fast passenger liner over twice as long as an American football field. The British Admiralty dictated many of the ship’s specifications, so that the 30,396-ton vessel could be armed if necessary during war, and stipulated that half the Lusitania’s crew belong to the naval reserves.
t he final voyage
The Final Voyage
  • A crew of 702 attended the 1,257 travelers for the 101st voyage leaving from New York’s Pier 54 on May 1.
  • Deep in the Lusitania’s storage area rested a cargo of foodstuffs and contraband including:
    • 4.2 million rounds of ammunition for Remington rifles, 1250 cases of empty shrapnel shells, and eighteen cases of non-explosive fuses.
the attack
The Attack
  • In the morning newspapers of May 1st a rather unusual announcement, placed by the Imperial German Embassy, appeared beside the Cunard Line advertisement. The German “Notice” warned passengers that the waters around the British Isles constituted a war zone wherein British Vessels were subject to destruction. Cunard officials at dockside reassured voyagers and the State Department did not intercede to warn the 197 American passengers away from the Lusitania.
  • Most Americans were not concerned of any threats. Many people believed that Lusitania was too fast for any submarine.
the attack1
The Attack

At 700 meters the U-20 released a torpedo. A watchman on the starboard bow of the Lusitania saw the torpedo and cried out. Captain Turner was unaccountable below deck. For some reason the bridge did not hear the lookout’s warning called through a megaphone one minute before the torpedo struck. Thirty seconds before disaster a lookout in the crow’s nest spied the torpedo and sounded the alarm. Turner rushed to the bridge. He did not see the torpedo, but he heard the explosion as it ripped into the Lusitania. Within eighteen minutes the “Queen of the Atlantic” sank, killing 1,198—128 of them Americans.

america decalres war on germany 1917
America Decalres War on Germany 1917
  • In the beginning the United States wanted to remain neutral.
  • The war was happening in Europe. Therefore, the war was not America’s concern.
  • President Woodrow Wilson was re-elected in 1916
america decalres war on germany 19171
America Decalres War on Germany 1917

What pulled the United States into the war?

  • Unlimited Submarine (u-boat) warfare
  • The sinking of the Lusitania
  • The Zimmerman Telegram
zimmerman telegram the final outrage
Zimmerman Telegram—the final outrage!
  • March 1917 The Zimmermann telegram released
  • If the U.S. entered War against Central Powers, Mexico should attack the U.S. and receive as a reward: Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona
america declares war
America Declares War
  • April 2, 1917
    • President Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war
  • April 6, 1917 Congress declares war!!
central powers surrender to the allies
Central Powers Surrender to the Allies
  • When? 11th month on the 11th day at

the 11th hour

November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am

Germany agrees to a cease fire!

  • 8.5 million soldiers dead
  • 21 million soldiers wounded
  • Cost of 338 billion dollars
ending the war the paris peace conference
Ending the WarThe Paris Peace Conference
  • Meeting of the “Big Four” at the Paris Peace Conference
  • Wilson Proposes his “14 points”
  • “Big Four” create Treaty of Versailles
the treaty of versailles the impact
The Treaty of Versailles---The Impact
  • Physical Impact
    • Germany must give up one million square miles of land
  • Financial Impact
    • Germany is held responsible for the war and is required to pay reparations to the Allies.
the treaty of versailles the impact1
The Treaty of Versailles---The Impact

3. Political Impact

  • German people did not support the new government, Germany in a bad economic condition, Germany was isolated from other countries due to an extreme distrust for Germany, and Germany was no longer seen as a world power.
provisions of the treaty
Provisions of the Treaty

Germany must:

  • accept full responsibility for causing the war
  • Not be allowed to make or export weapons
  • Give up territories and lands taken prior to the war
  • Pay reparations to countries hurt by the war.
things change industries grow
Things Change Industries Grow!
  • Cities began to grow where large populations of people settled.
  • Cities began to grow where good transportation systems were established.
  • Cities began to grow in places located near the resources needed to make products.

Population, transportation systems and resources are the factors that influence the growth of industry.

the great migration
The Great Migration

The Great Migration is a term used to describe the mass migration of African Americans from the southern United States to the industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest between the 1910s and 1960s.

This event is shown by one of the most famous African American painters of the 20th century, Jacob Lawrence. Lawrence’s Migration Series tells the story of the Great Migration.

.

  • ."
the great migration1
The Great Migration

"Around the time of WWI, many African-Americans from the South left home and traveled to cities in the North in search of a better life."

the great migration2
The Great Migration
  • "There was a shortage of workers in Northern factories because many had left their jobs to fight in the First World War."
the great migration3
The Great Migration
  • "The factory owners had to find new workers to replace those who were marching off to war."
the great migration4
The Great Migration
  • "Northern industries offered Southern blacks jobs as workers and lent them money, to be repaid later, for their railroad tickets. The Northbound trains were packed with recruits."
the great migration5
The Great Migration
  • "Life in the North brought many challenges, but the migrants' lives had changed for the better. The children were able to go to school, and their parents gained the freedom to vote.“
times are changing
Times are Changing!

"Louis Armstrong's station in the history of jazz is umimpeachable. If it weren't for him, there wouldn't be any of us." Dizzy Gillespie, 1971

harlem renaissance
Harlem Renaissance
  • Between 1920-1930 an unprecedented outburst of creative activity among African-Americans occurred in all fields of art. This African-American cultural movement became known as "The New Negro Movement" and later as the Harlem Renaissance.
harlem renaissance1
Harlem Renaissance

Harlem attracted a prosperous and stylish black middle class from which sprang an extraordinary artistic center. This time period embraced all art-forms, including music, dance, film, theatre and cabaret. Harlem nightlife, with its dance halls and jazz bands, featured prominently in the work of these artists.

langston hughes
Langston Hughes
  • A poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, short-story writer, autobiographer, columnist, editor, translator, and author of children's books, Hughes published more than fifty volumes of prose and poetry.
langston hughes1
Langston Hughes
  • Hughes became part of the Harlem Renaissance and was known during his lifetime as "the poet laureate of Harlem.” His poems, tell of the joys and miseries of the ordinary black man in America.
  • DREAMS

Hold fast to dreamsFor if dreams dieLife is a broken-winged birdThat cannot fly.Hold fast to dreamsFor when dreams goLife is a barren fieldFrozen with snow.

babe ruth
Babe Ruth

Over the course of his career, Ruth went on to break baseball's most important slugging records, including most years leading a league in home runs, most total bases in a season, and highest slugging percentage for a

season. In all, Ruth hit 714 home runs—a mark that stood until 1974.

henry ford
Henry Ford

Henry Ford did not invent the automobile. He didn’t even invent the assembly line. But more than any other single individual, he was responsible for transforming the automobile from an invention of unknown utility into an.

innovation that profoundly shaped the 20th century and continues to affect our lives today.

henry ford1
Henry Ford

Henry Ford had laid the foundation of the twentieth century. The assembly line became the century’s characteristic production mode, eventually applied to everything from phonographs to hamburgers. The vast quantities of war material turned out on those assembly lines were crucial to the Allied victory in World War II.

henry ford2
Henry Ford

High wage, low skilled factory jobs pioneered by Ford accelerated both immigration from overseas and the movement of Americans from the farms to the cities. The same jobs also accelerated the movement of the same people into an ever expanding middle class. In a dramatic demonstration of the law of unintended consequences, the creation of huge numbers of low skilled workers gave rise in

henry ford3
Henry Ford
  • the 1930s to industrial unionism as a potent social and political force. The Model T spawned mass automobility, altering our living patterns, our leisure activities, our landscape, even our atmosphere.
charles lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
  • Charles Lindbergh completed the first solo transatlantic flight in his plane, Spirit of St. Louis. In 1932, his 20-month-old son was kidnapped. The Lindberghs paid the $50,000 ransom, but sadly their son's dead body was found in the nearby woods weeks later. The events made world news and added to Lindbergh's fame.
charles lindbergh1
Charles Lindbergh
  • Lindbergh took off from Roosevelt Field in Long Island, New York, on May 20, 1927. Flying a monoplane named Spirit of St Louis, he crossed the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Lindbergh landed at Le Bourguet Field near Paris after 33.5 hours in the air. During his groundbreaking trip, he had traveled more than 3,600 miles.
voting rights
Voting rights

What is the Electoral College?

  • A group of persons from each of the 50 states that meet in their state capitals after the national election to officially elect the president and vice president of the United States.
  • What five states have the most electoral votes?
  • _______________
  • _______________
  • _______________
  • _______________
  • _______________
voting rights1
Voting rights
  • What are the least number of states a candidate could win in order to be selected as the president?
the great depression
The Great Depression

What?

The Great Depression, an immense tragedy that placed millions of Americans out of work, was the beginning of government involvement in the economy and in society as a whole.

When?

1929 to the early 1940s

herbert hoover
Herbert Hoover
  • The U.S. economy broke down and entered the Great Depression during the presidency of Herbert Hoover. Although President Hoover repeatedly spoke of optimism, the people blamed him for the Great Depression.
herbert hoover1
Herbert Hoover

Just as the shantytowns were named Hoovervilles after him, newspapers became known as "Hoover blankets," pockets of pants turned inside out (to show they were empty) were called

"Hoover flags," and broken-down cars pulled by horses were known as "Hoover wagons."

herbert hoover2
Herbert Hoover
  • As the Depression became worse, calls grew for increased federal intervention and spending. But Hoover refused to involve the federal government in forcing fixed prices, controlling businesses, or manipulating the value of the currency, all of which he felt were steps towards socialism.
herbert hoover3
Herbert Hoover
  • He was inclined to give indirect aid to banks or local public works projects, but he refused to use federal money for direct aid to citizens, believing the dole would weaken public morale.
  • Hoover focused on volunteerism to raise money. Hoover’s opponents painted him as uncaring toward the common citizen.
herbert hoover4
Herbert Hoover

When the election of 1932 came around, Hoover blamed the depression on factors beyond his control, but the public either didn’t care or wasn’t buying it, and he was trounced by Franklin Roosevelt

Hoover made a critical mistake in signing into law the Smoot-Hawley Act, which raised taxes on imports and caused foreign nations to turn their backs on American-made goods.

stock market crash of 1929
Stock Market Crash of 1929
  • In the last hour of trading on Thursday, Oct. 23, 1929, stock prices suddenly plummeted. When the closing bell rang at 3 p.m. people were shaken. No one was sure what had just happened, but that evening provided enough time for fear and panic to set in. When the market opened again the next day, prices plunged with renewed violence.
stock market crash of 19291
Stock Market Crash of 1929

Stock transactions in those days were printed on ticker tape, which could only produce 285 words a minute. Thirteen million shares changed hands — the highest daily volume in the exchange's history at that point — and the tape didn't stop running until four hours after the market closed. The following day, President Herbert Hoover went on the radio to reassure the American

stock market crash of 19292
Stock Market Crash of 1929

people, saying "The fundamental business of the country...is on a sound and prosperous basis."

Then came Black Monday. As soon as the opening bell rang on Oct. 28, prices began to drop. Huge blocks of shares changed hands, as previously impregnable companies like U.S. Steel and General Electric began to tumble. By the end of the day, the Dow had

stock market crash of 19293
Stock Market Crash of 1929

dropped 13%. So many shares changed hands that day that traders didn't have time to record them all. They worked into the night, sleeping in their offices or on the floor, trying to catch up to be ready for October 29.

In the first thirty minutes, 3 million shares changed hands and with them, another $2 million disappeared into thin air. Phone lines clogged. The volume of

stock market crash of 19294
Stock Market Crash of 1929

Western Union telegrams traveling across the country tripled. The ticker tape ran so far behind the actual transactions that some traders simply let it run out. Trades happened so quickly that although people knew they were losing money, they didn't know how much. Rumors of investors jumping out of buildings spread through Wall Street; although they weren't true, they drove

stock market crash of 19295
Stock Market Crash of 1929
  • the prices down further. Brokers called in margins; if stockholders couldn't pay up, their stocks were sold, wiping out many an investor's life savings in an instant. So many trades were made — each recorded on a slip of paper — that traders didn't know where to store them, and ended up stuffing them into trash cans. One trader fainted from exhaustion, was revived and put back to work. Others got into fistfights. The New York Stock Exchange's board of governors considered closing the market, but decided against it, lest the move increase the panic. When the market closed at 3 p.m., more than 16.4 million shares had changed hands, using 15,000 miles of ticker tape paper. The Dow had dropped another 12%.
stock market crash of 19296
Stock Market Crash of 1929

to work. Others got into fistfights. The New York Stock Exchange's board of governors considered closing the market, but decided against it, lest the move increase the panic. When the market closed at 3 p.m., more than 16.4 million shares had changed hands, using 15,000 miles of ticker tape paper. The Dow had dropped another 12%.

stock market crash of 19297
Stock Market Crash of 1929

In total, $25 billion — some $319 billion in today's dollars — was lost in the 1929 crash. Stocks continued to fall over subsequent weeks, finally bottoming out on November 13, 1929. The market recovered for a few months and then slid again, gliding swiftly and steadily with the rest of the country into the Great Depression. Companies incurred huge layoffs, unemployment skyrocketed,

stock market crash of 19298
Stock Market Crash of 1929

wages plummeted and the economy went into a tailspin. While World War II helped pull the country out of a Depression by the early 1940s, the stock market wouldn't recover to its pre-crash numbers until 1954.

dust bowl
Dust Bowl

For eight years dust blew on the southern plains. It came in a yellowish-brown haze from the South and in rolling walls of black from the North. The simplest acts of life -breathing, eating a meal, taking a walk- were no longer simple. Children wore dust masks to and from school, women hung wet sheets over windows in a futile attempt to stop the dirt, farmers watched helplessly as their crops blew away.

dust bowl1
Dust Bowl

The Dust Bowl of the 1930s lasted about a decade, primary area of impact was on the southern Plains. The northern Plains were not so badly effected, but nonetheless, the drought, windblown dust and agricultural decline were no strangers to the north. In fact the agricultural devastation helped to lengthen the Depression whose effects were felt worldwide. The movement of people on the Plains was also profound.

dust bowl3
Dust Bowl

Poor agricultural practices and years of sustained drought caused the Dust Bowl. Plains grasslands had been deeply plowed and planted to wheat. During the years when there was adequate rainfall, the land produced bountiful crops.

But as the droughts of the early 1930s deepened, the farmers kept plowing and planting and nothing would grow. The ground cover that held the soil in place was gone. In the Fall of 1939 the rain comes, finally bringing an end to the drought.

soup kitchens
Soup Kitchens

Soup kitchens in America started around 1929 when the effects of a growing depression began to be felt. The need for soup kitchens was felt even more keenly when the tailspin in the economy worsened in 1932, and 12 million Americans — about 25 percent of the normal labor force — were out of work. Governmental unemployment relief ranged from nonexistent to inadequate.

franklin delano roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known by his initials FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States. He served for 12 years and four terms, and was the only president ever to serve more than eight years.

In 1932 presidential election, FDR was perceived as a man of action.

slide78

He was a practical politician who practiced the art of the possible.

  • He was a charismatic person who exhibited a warmth and understanding of people.
  • He knewhow to handle press by focusing attention on Washington.
  • He provided dynamic leadership in a time of crisis.
purpose of the the new deal
Purpose of the the NEW DEAL
  • Relief: to provide jobs for the unemployed and to protect farmers from foreclosure
  • Recovery:to get the economy back into high gear, “priming the pump”
  • Reform: To regulate banks, to abolish child labor, and to conserve farm lands
congress gets busy
CONGRESS GETS BUSY
  • FDR’s philosophy was to get people help and work through “deficit” spending
  • During the 100 Days, Congress passed more than 15 major pieces of legislation that significantly expanded government’s role in the nation’s economy and welfare
alphabet agencies
ALPHABET AGENCIES

WPA

TVA

CCC

FHA

SSA

first agricultural adjustment act aaa
First Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
  • Purpose: the recovery of agriculture
  • Paid farmers who agreed to reduce production of basic crops such as cotton, wheat, tobacco, hogs, and corn
  • Money came from a tax on processors such as flour millers and meat packers who passed the cost on to the consumer
civilian conservation corp ccc
Civilian Conservation Corp (CCC)
  • Purpose: relief
  • Gave outdoor work to unemployed men between the ages of 17 and 29
  • They received $30 per month, but $22 went back to the family
public works adminstration
Public Works Adminstration
  • PWA – Public Works Administration was part of the NIRA (National Industrial Recovery Act)
  • The PWA provided money to states to construct schools and community buildings

PWA workers construct a public building in Hartford, Connecticut

works progress administration
WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION
  • Helping urban workers was critical to the success of the Second Hundred Days
  • The WPA set out to create as many jobs as possible as quickly as possible
  • Between 1935-1943, the WPA spent $11 billion to give jobs to 8 million workers
tennessee valley authority
Tennessee Valley Authority
  • Tennessee Valley Authority: (TVA) Focused on direct relief to hard hit area– created ambitious dam projects

TVA

federal housing administation
Federal Housing Administation
  • FHA – Federal Housing Administration provided home loans, home mortgages and repairs

Repaired business in Childersburg, Alabama

social security act
SOCIAL SECURITY ACT
  • One of the most important achievements of the New Deal era was the creation of the Social Security System
  • The Social Security Act, passed in 1935, had 3 parts:
  • Old-Age Pension
  • Unemployment compensation
  • Aid to families with dependent children & disabled (welfare)
social security act1
Social Security Act
  • Purpose: reform
  • Gave money to states for aid to dependent children, established unemployment insurance through payroll deduction, set up old-age pensions for retirees.
the impact of the new deal
THE IMPACT OF THE NEW DEAL
  • Over time, opinions about the merits of the New Deal and FDR have ranged from harsh criticism to high praise – usually along partisan lines
  • Conservatives felt FDR made government too large and too powerful
  • Liberals countered that FDR socialized the economy because Americans needed help
legacies of the new deal
LEGACIES OF THE NEW DEAL
  • FDIC – banking insurance critical to sound economy
  • Deficit spending has became a normal feature of government
  • Social Security is a key legacy of the New Deal in that the Feds have assumed a greater responsibility for the social welfare of citizens since 1935
new deal affects many groups
NEW DEAL AFFECTS MANY GROUPS
  • First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt helped women gain higher political positions during the New Deal
  • Eleanor was influential in her role as advisor to the president
  • Frances Perkins became America’s first female cabinet member (Labor)

Eleanor & Franklin

african americans during the new deal
AFRICAN AMERICANS DURING THE NEW DEAL
  • The 1930s witnessed a growth of activism for black Americans
  • A. Philip Randolph became head of the nation’s first all-black union – the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
african americans gain political positions
AFRICAN AMERICANS GAIN POLITICAL POSITIONS

FDR appointed over 100 African Americans to positions within the government

Mary McLeod Bethune headed the division of Negro Affairs of the NYA

Despite these gains, FDR was never fully committed to Civil Rights

Bethune

distraction from the depression
Distraction from the Depression
  • Music Man
  • Southern Comfort
dictators get aggressive
Dictators Get Aggressive
  • Hirohito of Japan

Asia 1931—Japanese forces take on a region in china known as Manchuria. Quickly Japanese aggression led to a take over of most of China.

dictators get aggressive1
Dictators Get Aggressive
  • Hitler of Germany

Nazi party led by Hitler takes over the German government. Germany invades Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland

dictators get aggressive2
Dictators Get Aggressive
  • Mussolini of Italy

Under Mussolini’s direction Italy took over Albania in Europe and Ethiopia in Africa

the allied powers are formed
The Allied Powers are Formed
  • United States---FDR and after FDR’s death Harry Truman
  • Great Britain---Winston Churchill
  • Soviet Union---Joseph Stalin
  • France---Charles de Gaulle
  • China---Chiang Kai-shek