Unit 6. Ups and Downs: World War I, the Jazz Age, and the Great Depression. Emigration VS. Immigration. Emigration---the act of leaving one’s country to settle in another country. Immigration---the act of moving into a new country. Push and Pull Factors of Immigration.
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Ups and Downs:
World War I, the Jazz Age, and the
Emigration---the act of leaving one’s country to settle in another country.
Immigration---the act of moving into a new country.
At 700 meters the U-20 released a torpedo. A watchman on the starboard bow of the Lusitania saw the torpedo and cried out. Captain Turner was unaccountable below deck. For some reason the bridge did not hear the lookout’s warning called through a megaphone one minute before the torpedo struck. Thirty seconds before disaster a lookout in the crow’s nest spied the torpedo and sounded the alarm. Turner rushed to the bridge. He did not see the torpedo, but he heard the explosion as it ripped into the Lusitania. Within eighteen minutes the “Queen of the Atlantic” sank, killing 1,198—128 of them Americans.
What pulled the United States into the war?
the 11th hour
November 11, 1918 at 11:00 am
Germany agrees to a cease fire!
3. Political Impact
Population, transportation systems and resources are the factors that influence the growth of industry.
The Great Migration is a term used to describe the mass migration of African Americans from the southern United States to the industrial centers of the Northeast and Midwest between the 1910s and 1960s.
This event is shown by one of the most famous African American painters of the 20th century, Jacob Lawrence. Lawrence’s Migration Series tells the story of the Great Migration.
"Around the time of WWI, many African-Americans from the South left home and traveled to cities in the North in search of a better life."
"Louis Armstrong's station in the history of jazz is umimpeachable. If it weren't for him, there wouldn't be any of us." Dizzy Gillespie, 1971
Harlem attracted a prosperous and stylish black middle class from which sprang an extraordinary artistic center. This time period embraced all art-forms, including music, dance, film, theatre and cabaret. Harlem nightlife, with its dance halls and jazz bands, featured prominently in the work of these artists.
Hold fast to dreamsFor if dreams dieLife is a broken-winged birdThat cannot fly.Hold fast to dreamsFor when dreams goLife is a barren fieldFrozen with snow.
Over the course of his career, Ruth went on to break baseball's most important slugging records, including most years leading a league in home runs, most total bases in a season, and highest slugging percentage for a
season. In all, Ruth hit 714 home runs—a mark that stood until 1974.
Henry Ford did not invent the automobile. He didn’t even invent the assembly line. But more than any other single individual, he was responsible for transforming the automobile from an invention of unknown utility into an.
innovation that profoundly shaped the 20th century and continues to affect our lives today.
Henry Ford had laid the foundation of the twentieth century. The assembly line became the century’s characteristic production mode, eventually applied to everything from phonographs to hamburgers. The vast quantities of war material turned out on those assembly lines were crucial to the Allied victory in World War II.
High wage, low skilled factory jobs pioneered by Ford accelerated both immigration from overseas and the movement of Americans from the farms to the cities. The same jobs also accelerated the movement of the same people into an ever expanding middle class. In a dramatic demonstration of the law of unintended consequences, the creation of huge numbers of low skilled workers gave rise in
What is the Electoral College?
The Great Depression, an immense tragedy that placed millions of Americans out of work, was the beginning of government involvement in the economy and in society as a whole.
1929 to the early 1940s
Just as the shantytowns were named Hoovervilles after him, newspapers became known as "Hoover blankets," pockets of pants turned inside out (to show they were empty) were called
"Hoover flags," and broken-down cars pulled by horses were known as "Hoover wagons."
When the election of 1932 came around, Hoover blamed the depression on factors beyond his control, but the public either didn’t care or wasn’t buying it, and he was trounced by Franklin Roosevelt
Hoover made a critical mistake in signing into law the Smoot-Hawley Act, which raised taxes on imports and caused foreign nations to turn their backs on American-made goods.
Stock transactions in those days were printed on ticker tape, which could only produce 285 words a minute. Thirteen million shares changed hands — the highest daily volume in the exchange's history at that point — and the tape didn't stop running until four hours after the market closed. The following day, President Herbert Hoover went on the radio to reassure the American
people, saying "The fundamental business of the country...is on a sound and prosperous basis."
Then came Black Monday. As soon as the opening bell rang on Oct. 28, prices began to drop. Huge blocks of shares changed hands, as previously impregnable companies like U.S. Steel and General Electric began to tumble. By the end of the day, the Dow had
dropped 13%. So many shares changed hands that day that traders didn't have time to record them all. They worked into the night, sleeping in their offices or on the floor, trying to catch up to be ready for October 29.
In the first thirty minutes, 3 million shares changed hands and with them, another $2 million disappeared into thin air. Phone lines clogged. The volume of
Western Union telegrams traveling across the country tripled. The ticker tape ran so far behind the actual transactions that some traders simply let it run out. Trades happened so quickly that although people knew they were losing money, they didn't know how much. Rumors of investors jumping out of buildings spread through Wall Street; although they weren't true, they drove
to work. Others got into fistfights. The New York Stock Exchange's board of governors considered closing the market, but decided against it, lest the move increase the panic. When the market closed at 3 p.m., more than 16.4 million shares had changed hands, using 15,000 miles of ticker tape paper. The Dow had dropped another 12%.
In total, $25 billion — some $319 billion in today's dollars — was lost in the 1929 crash. Stocks continued to fall over subsequent weeks, finally bottoming out on November 13, 1929. The market recovered for a few months and then slid again, gliding swiftly and steadily with the rest of the country into the Great Depression. Companies incurred huge layoffs, unemployment skyrocketed,
wages plummeted and the economy went into a tailspin. While World War II helped pull the country out of a Depression by the early 1940s, the stock market wouldn't recover to its pre-crash numbers until 1954.
For eight years dust blew on the southern plains. It came in a yellowish-brown haze from the South and in rolling walls of black from the North. The simplest acts of life -breathing, eating a meal, taking a walk- were no longer simple. Children wore dust masks to and from school, women hung wet sheets over windows in a futile attempt to stop the dirt, farmers watched helplessly as their crops blew away.
The Dust Bowl of the 1930s lasted about a decade, primary area of impact was on the southern Plains. The northern Plains were not so badly effected, but nonetheless, the drought, windblown dust and agricultural decline were no strangers to the north. In fact the agricultural devastation helped to lengthen the Depression whose effects were felt worldwide. The movement of people on the Plains was also profound.
Poor agricultural practices and years of sustained drought caused the Dust Bowl. Plains grasslands had been deeply plowed and planted to wheat. During the years when there was adequate rainfall, the land produced bountiful crops.
But as the droughts of the early 1930s deepened, the farmers kept plowing and planting and nothing would grow. The ground cover that held the soil in place was gone. In the Fall of 1939 the rain comes, finally bringing an end to the drought.
Soup kitchens in America started around 1929 when the effects of a growing depression began to be felt. The need for soup kitchens was felt even more keenly when the tailspin in the economy worsened in 1932, and 12 million Americans — about 25 percent of the normal labor force — were out of work. Governmental unemployment relief ranged from nonexistent to inadequate.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, commonly known by his initials FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States. He served for 12 years and four terms, and was the only president ever to serve more than eight years.
In 1932 presidential election, FDR was perceived as a man of action.
PWA workers construct a public building in Hartford, Connecticut
Repaired business in Childersburg, Alabama
Eleanor & Franklin
FDR appointed over 100 African Americans to positions within the government
Mary McLeod Bethune headed the division of Negro Affairs of the NYA
Despite these gains, FDR was never fully committed to Civil Rights
Asia 1931—Japanese forces take on a region in china known as Manchuria. Quickly Japanese aggression led to a take over of most of China.
Nazi party led by Hitler takes over the German government. Germany invades Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland
Under Mussolini’s direction Italy took over Albania in Europe and Ethiopia in Africa