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Chapter 7. Personality, Lifestyle, and Self-Concept. Personality, Lifestyle, and Self-Concept. Snapshot from the Marketplace. Body image is an inseparable component of our self concept. An ideal of beauty varies cross-culturally and over time.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7


Lifestyle, and


Personality, Lifestyle,

and Self-Concept

snapshot from the marketplace
Snapshot from the Marketplace
  • Body image is an inseparable component of our self concept.
  • An ideal of beauty varies cross-culturally and over time.
  • Since we compare ourselves to idealized images depicted in ads, marketers use such a tactic to create sufficient temporary dissatisfaction to motivate us to act.
what is personality
What Is Personality?
  • The sum total of an individual’s inner psychological attributes
  • Distinctive and enduring patterns of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize each individual's adaptation to the situation of his or her life
  • static.
what is personality1
What Is Personality?
  • Properties that characterize personality:
    • Personality is unique.
    • Personality is consistentacross diverse circumstances.
    • Personality is not static.
diversity of personality theories
Diversity of Personality Theories
  • Psychological literature provides a large number of personality theories.
  • Our focus here is on 3 theories:
    • Freudian theory of personality
    • Neo-Freudian theory of personality
    • Trait theory of personality
freudian psychoanalytic personality theory
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory
  • Strong emphasis on biological & sexual motivation
  • Personality is a result of interaction & conflict between:
    • The Id: pleasure principle
    • The Superego: social, moral, & ethical inhibitions
    • The Ego: mediator between the id’s impulses & superego’s restrictions
    • Personality develops as we progress through a sequence of psychosexual stages during infancy.
freudian psychoanalytic personality theory cont d
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory (cont’d)
  • Anxiety plays a major role in personality development.
  • Freud discerned 3 types of anxiety:
    • Reality anxiety: fear of tangible danger
    • Neurotic anxiety: fear of punishment for instinctual gratification
    • Moral anxiety: fear of our own conscience
freudian psychoanalytic personality theory cont d1
Freudian Psychoanalytic Personality Theory (cont’d)
  • Defense mechanisms to overcome anxiety, examples include:
    • Repression
    • Rationalization
    • Regression
    • Projection
    • Aggression
    • Withdrawal
marketing applications of freudian theory
Marketing Applications of Freudian Theory
  • Ads frequently address the id by emphasizing the pleasure and self-indulgent aspects of product or service offerings.
  • Promotions address the ego via free offers as well as by employing leisure, freedom, escape, and fantasy appeals.
  • Promotional appeals address the superego by emphasizing social amenities, ethics, and tradition.
personality videos
Personality Videos
  • NFL Custom Shop Personality
  • Doritos Personality
neo freudian personality theory
Neo-Freudian Personality Theory
  • Social variables rather than biological instincts underlie personality formation
  • Four theories of Freud’s disciples & their emphases:
    • Adler: overcoming real & perceived inferiorities; pursuit of superiority & perfection
    • Horney: dealing with anxiety
    • Fromm: escape from loneliness; seeking meaningful relationships
    • Sullivan: interpersonal relationships
marketing applications of neo freudian theory
Marketing Applications of Neo-Freudian Theory
  • Ads employing Neo-Freudian theory emphasize social relationships and human interaction.
  • Promotional appeals frequently depict warm interaction between individuals in a social or a family setting.
  • Appeals may also emphasize the role of products as enhancers of positive interpersonal relationships with others or protectors against offending others.
  • Cohen’s C-A-D scale: a paradigm that classifies people based on their degree of compliance, aggression, and detachment
trait theory of personality
Trait Theory of Personality
  • Classifies people according to their dominant characteristics or identifiable traits
  • Theory assumptions:
    • Traits are identifiable and limited in number.
    • Traits are relatively stable.
    • Traits can be measured via behavioral indicators.
    • People with similar traits behave similarly.
  • Measuring personality traits:
    • Standard clinical personality tests vs. tailor-made & modified tests
trait theory of personality cont d
Trait Theory of Personality (cont’d)
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator: this instrument measures traits by employing 4 scales:
    • Extroversion/introversion
    • Sensate/Intuitive
    • Thinking/feeling
    • Judging/perceiving
  • Measurement results in 16 personality types, representing a person’s behavioral tendencies on the above 4 traits.
marketing applications of trait theory
Marketing Applications of Trait Theory
  • Marketers search for correlations between sets of specific personality traits and consumer behavior patterns.
  • Correlations can occur in the form of one or more personality traits and such specific tendencies as product purchase, brand choice, retail store selection, or media habits.
  • The objective is to assess consumers’ lifestyles so that meaningful consumer typologies can be identified.
  • Profiles can be obtained through AIO Inventories (activities, interests, and opinions surveys)
marketing applications of psychographics
Marketing Applications of Psychographics
  • VALS segmentation approach defines 8 market segments; each has a unique combination of psychological and demographic attributes.
    • VALS segments the market based on both consumers’ primary motivations and resources/innovation.
    • Primary motivations are ideals, achievements, and self-expression.
    • Resources range from minimal to abundant and cover individuals’ psychological, physical, demographic, and material means.
vals configuration of consumer categories
Self-Expression Motivated






Abundant ResourcesHigh Innovation






Minimal ResourcesLow Innovation


VALS Configuration of Consumer Categories


marketing applications of vals
Marketing Applications of VALS
  • VALS helps marketers:
    • Identify and select target markets
    • Develop effective media plans to reach specific target markets
    • Create ads and appeals that match the attributes of desirable target segments
applications to consumer behavior research
Applications to Consumer Behavior Research
  • Need for cognition – a tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking
  • Locus of control – significant personality variable in psychology
    • External locus of control – ascribe the influences on their lives to luck, fate, chance, other people, or strong forces they cannot overcome
    • Internal locus of control – tend to attribute the influences on their lives to forces such as their own skills that are within their control
    • Differ in attentiveness to information present in the environment and seeking of additional relevant information
self concept
  • The sum total of our beliefs and feelings about our self
  • An organized configuration of perceptions of the self, which are available to awareness
interactive sources of selfhood
Interactive Sources of Selfhood
  • Significant others
    • individuals with whom we interact in various kinds of role relations, are crucial in the formation of our self.
  • Materials and objects
    • the physical environment that we rely on for survival and the technologies that support and mediate our social relations affect the development of our self.
  • Ideas, beliefs and values
    • ideology and religious beliefs influence the way we perceive and respond to our social and physical environment
self esteem and self efficacy
Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy
  • Self-Esteem –the pattern of beliefs an individual has about self-worth
  • One’s subjective self-evaluation developed from personal experiences of success or failure, interactions with others, maturation, heredity, and social learning.
  • High self-esteem is related to spending; low self-esteem is related to compulsive and addictive behaviors
  • Self-Efficacy -- people’s beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over events that affect their lives
  • Self-efficacy should vary cross-culturally.
self concept1
  • multifaceted
    • includes a collection of images, activities, goals, feelings, roles, traits and values
  • Multiplicity of identity indicates that selfhood is a collection of diverse but related self-perceptions – the self includes a multiplicity of things that people are to themselves and to one another
self concept is multi faceted
Self-Concept is Multi-Faceted
  • I-self
    • the active observer, the knower, or the information processor
  • Me-self
    • the known, observed, and constructed self-image
  • Looking-glass self
  • Image congruence hypothesis
    • self-concept is reinforced as positive responses from others support consumption activities
  • Extended self
    • external objects to which we are emotionally attached and that we consider a part of ourselves
self concept depends on situations and motives
Self-Concept Depends on Situations and Motives
  • Working or activated self-concept
    • aspects that are most relevant in a particular social setting or situation
  • People selectively retrieve different aspects of their self-concepts depending on goals and motives.
  • Sometimes consumers may contrive to use products to trigger aspects of the self.
self concept is changeable
Self-Concept is Changeable
  • Self-concept is flexible and changeable
  • Consumers’ self-concepts are especially dynamic during certain role transitions
  • Role transitions and self-esteem
    • the degree to which people have a positive attitude towards themselves
  • Role transitions are marked by changes in consumption patterns
self concept2
Self Concept
  • intrapersonal – inner, processes
    • including information processing and motivation
  • interpersonal processes -- including perception, interpersonal influence and reaction to others’ feedback
the dynamic self concept intrapersonal processes
The Dynamic Self-ConceptIntrapersonal Processes
  • Self-narrative
    • stories that arecoherent, context sensitive accounts of experiences that provide a sense of personal continuity in time and space
  • Self-relevant information
    • internalized self-schemas that represent a reference value or standard of comparison for new information
  • Self-gifts
    • frequently carry messages about identify and self-distinctiveness, which contributes to self-esteem
intrapersonal processes
Intrapersonal Processes
  • Body image
    • Commonly defined as a mental construction, embedded in self-schema that can deviate substantially from a person’s objective physical characteristics
  • Desired selves
    • what a person thinks he or she really can and would like to be
interpersonal processes
Interpersonal Processes
  • Self is a reference point for evaluating others, selecting friends and directing interactions with others
  • Consumption communicates socially shared meanings about identity
  • High self-monitors
    • concerned with being consistent with their conception of how people behave in a particular situation
  • Low self-monitors
    • concerned with being themselves in various situations
  • Consumers may use goods to close the gap between actual and possible selves
the self concept
The Self-Concept
  • 5 original concepts of self: real-self, ideal self, self-image, apparent-self, & reference-group self
  • Other concepts of self:
    • Extended-self
    • Possible-self
self concept3
  • Defined as an organized configuration of perceptions of the self, which are available to awareness
    • Perceptions people have about themselves
    • An active configuration that influences intrapersonal and interpersonal processes
    • It is not distinct from society and culture
    • Role transition is a major change in the rights, duties, and responsibilities expected of an individual by a social group
self concept and social roles
Self Concept and Social Roles
  • At different times, we assume diverse social roles such as that of spouse, parent, employer, or student.
  • While in a specific role, we are often concerned about the impression we make on others.
self concept and consumption
Self-Concept and Consumption
  • Consumers attempt to purchase products that match their personality and self concept.
  • Products we own or use serve as social symbols designed to communicate to others who we are.
  • Self-product congruence refers to our tendency to select and use products that match aspects of self.
stability of the self concept
Stability of the Self-Concept
  • Even though the self concept is relatively stable, it is not static.
  • New experiences can change our self concept.
  • Symbolic self-completion is our tendency to complement self by displaying symbols associated with our identity.
measuring the self concept
Measuring the Self-Concept
  • The Q-Sort technique involves giving respondents a number of cards (60-120), each containing a self-describing statement or situation for the respondent to evaluate.
  • Respondents sort these cards into a number of piles reflecting their assessment of how well each statement matches or differs from their own self perception.