Chapter 7 Gay Issues
rainbow • lambda • the pink triangle
words associated with gays • queer • abnormal • sin (in the religious sense) • fag/faggot • (drag) queen人妖 • dykes • Transgender (异性癖） • Transvestite （异装癖，still heterosexual) • 同志 • 拉拉，蕾丝边（lesbian) • 玻璃，兔子（gay)
A Quote from your reading material • Over the past three decades, America’s attitude toward its gay children has evolved… gradually, sometimes painfully, one family at a time. But change it has, at a pace that has quickened perceptibly every decade. Surveys show public acceptance of gays underwent nearly a generation of change between 1990 and 1995 alone…
Timeline of the event • A Monday back in October, 2006 • Washington made a nasty remark to T.R. Knight, because Knight was late. Then Patrick Dempsey stepped in on Knight’s behalf. • The same Friday • T.R. Knight admitted that he is gay.
Isaiah Washington admitted, “We (Washington and Dempsy) had a difference of opinions while working on set but we’ve resolved it. ” • Words got out that Isaiah Washington may get fired.
Golden Globes, January 15th, 2007 • Isaiah Washington pulled out the “F-word” once again at back stage, and bring it all on again.
T.R Knight revealed the story on a talk show, that Isaiah Washington called him “Faggot” on set, which cause the whole thing. • January, 2007
While, the whole cast show their support towards T.R. Knight • Later, Isaiah Washington apologized twice
SAG Awards, January 28th, 2007 • The cast of Grey’s Anatomy got the Best Cast of the year, without Isaiah Washington’s presence.
June 8th, 2007 • Words got out that Grey’s Anatomy fired Isaiah Washington • June 10th, 2007 • Isaiah Washington claimed that he is really mad, and he might take legal actions against ABC
Video Clips • Friends • Sex and the City
Discussion Questions • Why are some people/countries against homosexuality? • List the persons you know who are gay, at present and in the past, in China and overseas. • Do independent research to find out the latest status of gay legislation in different countries. • What has the gay community been doing to improve their conditions? • What urges gays and lesbians to come out? • What’s your opinion on gay marriage? • What’s the Chinese attitude towards homosexuality?
Brief review of the history 1) Ancient Greece homosexual paradise 2) Ancient Egypt Circa 1500B.C. Worship of double gendered God
Egypt: the tomb of two men • NiankhkhnumandKhnumhotep • The remarkable thingabout the tomb were thescenes of two menembracing, holdinghands, and kissing.
a Greek male’s destined path through the garden of love: in adolescence, choose an adult man to be his lover continue in early adulthood with his own courting and winning the love of a deserving youth then it would expand to include taking a wife and having children of his own
Bible: Gay Marriage Is A Sin! "If a man lies with a male as with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall be put to death: their blood is upon them" (Lev 20:13). The condemnation of the law applies for those "who kill their father or mother, for murderers, fornicators, sodomites, slave traders, liars, perjurers" ( 1 Tim 1:9-10).
Brief review of the history 5) 8~16th century the growing trend of hatred toward homosexuality Heretics(异教徒 ）burned because of “homosexual offenses”
Brief review of the history 6)1900s “not a disease” gaining support on a small scale Emergence of sexologist (Kinsey Report, “sexual orientation”, 1948) still regarded as a crime
Modern Perspective AIDS The original name of AIDS: GRIDS (Gay-related Immune Deficiency Syndrome) The original Chinese translation Was “爱滋病”
innate theory spermary ketone effect: • gay's spermary ketone level in blood is fewer than hetero's • lesbian's is more than hetero's
acquired theory the family factor has the most important effect
Factors leading a man to be a gay(acquired theory) • a) lack of sex identity of his father, overly depend on his mother; • b) his mother distrusted other women and expressed this to her son frequently; • c) there are too many women around him (mom, sister, aunt, grandma, etc), and he gets familiar with women's behavior &mood; • d) his family wants to have a daughter, but in fact, they have a son, then they raise him as a daughter; • e) both parents are afraid of sex, this made the son have a distorted concept of sex. • f) once betrayed by a woman
Factors leading a woman to be a lesbian (acquired theory) • a) unstable or violent family circumstance; • b) have an injuring experience or suffering from a bad memory, distrust man. • c) be treated as boy; • d) her younger sister turns to her for protection, and then she get used to it; • e) some feminists are lesbians due to their hostility to man.
Fears of homosexuality • Religious reasons (banned in Catholicism, Islam, known as “sodomy”) • Legal reasons, e.g., property rights, inheritance, right to have children (adopted or biological) • Social reasons: union of a man and a woman is traditionally regarded as the only means to replace the aging population • Medical reasons: homosexuals are more likely to be exposed to sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS
Same-sex Partnership Legalized in Some Countries • Gay Marriage • Civil Union • Same-sex Union • Same-sex Partnership • Domestic Partnership • Reciprocal Beneficiaries
Laws On Gay Marriages Holland is the first country in the world to grant same-sex couples the right to marry (in 2001). Belgium is the second (in 2003)and Spain is the third (in 2005). Britain legalized gay marriage on Dec.20, 2005
Laws on gay marriage • In the United States, Massachusetts is the only state to recognize gay marriages. On May 17th 2004 ,the law came into force. • Canada (in 2004) and South Africa (in 2006) are another two countries to allow gay marriage.
Laws on civil Unions • In the United States, Vermont legislature passed and Governor Howard Dean signed a law creating civil unions for same-sex couples (in 2000). • Other states: Connecticut (in 2005), New Jersey (in 2006). • Other countries: Finland, France, Sweden ,Iceland and so on.
Laws on Domestic Partnership • In the United States, California allow gay and lesbian couples to register as domestic partners. • Other states: Maine (in 2004), Washington (in 2007) and so on. • Other countries: Denmark (in 1989), Portugal, Germany and so on.
Facts and figures • attitude
Holy hatred 2005年6月19日，伊朗绞刑处死两名同性恋少年。 执行绞刑的地点是伊朗第二大城马什哈德(Mashhad)的司法广场，官方最初仅以姓名缩写M.A.与A.M.称呼两位当事人，后经媒体查证，两人分别是16岁的阿斯家立(Mahmoud Asgari)与18岁的马宏尼(Ayaz Marhoni)。他们在处决之前已坐监14个月，遭受鞭笞228次。判刑之前，他们并不清楚同性性行为依回教律法得判处死刑。 伊朗警方目前还在追捕三位疑似同志的青少年，这三人若不幸落网同样难逃处决命运。塔契尔指出，伊朗自从1979年柯梅尼执政以来，已有四千多名男女同性恋者遭到处决。 news from Baidu
Scenes from the US • On August 12th , 2004, Governor James McGreevey of New Jersey announced his resignation after revealing that he is gay and had an adulterous affair with a man (he has a wife and two daughters). • Once regarded as a rising star in the Democratic Party, he decided to resign because a former aide had pressed a sexual harassment lawsuit against him. A fellow democrat will serve the remainder of his gubernatorial term. If he hadn’t resigned, a new election would take place and a Republican might win.
Also Scenes from the USA • The US Congress enacted DOMA (Defense of Marriage Act) in 1996 stating marriage is between a man and a woman • Louisiana and Missouri approved state constitutional amendments that define marriage as the union of a man and a woman • 11 states put gay marriage issue on the ballots in the 2004 Presidential and Senatorial election (result, all denied gay marriage). • In 2004, the Bush Administration supported the Federal Marriage Amendment limiting marriage to heterosexuals.
Scenes Taken from France • In France, 3-10% of the total population (1.8-6 million) are gay. • France’s first gay and lesbian TV station, Pink TV, went on air on Nov.1, 2004. The launching turned out to be a huge social event. Similar TV stations already exist in Italy and Canada. Its counterpart in the US will be launched in 5 months’ time. • Mayor of Paris, Bertrand Delanoe, is openly gay.The fact has won him quite some votes in his mayoral campaign. Yet he was stabbed for being gay.
Scenes Taken from Britain • On Oct. 19, 2004, The Line of Beauty, a novel with a homosexual theme by Alan Hollinghurst, won the renowned Booker Prize. • The British Parliament has legitimized gay marriages. Gay couples in England and Wales will enjoy legal rights same as straight couples, such as pension and property rights. • The British Government is considering revisions to relevant laws so that gay couples can have children. • The Defense Minister said that gay soldiers will be treated identically with non-gay soldiers.
In England: • The most high-profile gay or lesbian wedding • After gay marriage was legally recognized on Dec.20th, Elton John and his gay valentine David Furnish decided to held their wedding on Dec.21st, and a big concert named “The Last Single Night” on Dec.20th. • Bill Clinton was among the ones who sent their congratulations, saying, “Our world will become more beautiful with more Elton Johns.”
The pioneer who changed gay lives Chris Smith has been changing the face of British public life for 20 years. He was Britain's first openly gay MP, the first gay cabinet minister and is now the first political figure to admit to being HIV-positive, during a career which saw him become one of the country's key decision-makers. 'My name is Chris Smith. I'm the Labour MP for Islington South and Finsbury, and I'm gay'. It was with those words, his hands shaking as he spoke, that Smith finally publicly acknowledged the sexuality he had kept secret for a decade, and became Britain's first MP to come out of the closet. His unparalleled honesty earned him a five-minute standing ovation.
Scenes Taken from Germany • By the 1920's, Berlin had become known as a homosexual Eden, where gay men and lesbians lived relatively open lives amidst an exciting subculture of artists and intellectuals. • In Nazi Germany, gays were treated the same as Jews. They went into concentration camps and had to sew a pink triangle onto their clothes. Some underwent forced castration. • In 1990, German parliament abolished laws prohibiting homosexuality. • Mayor of Berlin, Klaus Wowereit, is gay. He marches in the annual Christopher Street Day (a.k.a. Gay Pride March, August 5th). The event’s 2004 sponsors include Ford, Coca Cola, Heineken.
Gay Rights Row leaves EU in Crisis • The incoming European Commission accepts one candidate recommended by each member country. • On October 28th 2004, Rocco Buttiglione, an outspoken Catholic and Italy’s choice for Commissioner in Charge of Justice, was voted down by members of European Parliament for calling homosexuality a sin and disparaging single mothers as “not very good mothers”. • The next day the Italian government indicated that Mr. Buttiglione wouldn’t serve in the EC.
Why the Gay Hush-Hush? • Stereotypical concepts of family and marriage • Lack of family support, social ostracism • National policies: e.g. President Clinton’s 1993 “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Don’t Pursue” • Threat of arrest • Hate crimes
Why have gays gradually come out (1)? • The closet is suffocating (relief after telling the long-kept secret) • AIDS made the issue a stark reality • Celebrity effect (Although Bush is against gay marriage, Dick Cheney’s daughter is gay) • Victories in court actions for gay rights • Gay parenthood makes it necessary to worry about inheritance and custody protection
Why have gays gradually come out?(2) • The stigma attached to this alternative lifestyle starts fading • Young homosexuals find it easier to come out with their peers than with their parents (e.g. in a recent survey of Fujian college students, 60% accept homosexuality) • Gays and lesbians find they are not alone: websites, hotlines (e.g. in Beijing, 99575)
Why the gay power now? (1) • Homosexuality was cracked down by the Catholic Church and Nazi Germany, to support gay rights now is to be politically correct, a synonym for progress.
Why the Gay Power now? (2) • Gay couples form double-income-no-kid households, usually living in large cities, have great purchasing power. • Many gays or lesbians are influential in the academia, cultural scene, entertainment and fashion.
Communications: • Promote a sense of community among members. • Serve as an information resource on issues concerning sexual orientation, gender identity and gender expression as they affect IBM employees. • Recognize and communicate contributions made by and/or for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender employees and their supporters at IBM. Education: • Promote awareness among members and others about the value of diversity in our workforce. Marketing: • Be a resource for IBM in identifying and maximizing business relationships in the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender market. Outreach: • Participate in corporate, location, and community projects
No Child Abuse in the Name of Homosexuality • Look at the Michael Jackson child harassment case • Crackdown on child prostitution (including juvenile boys) and pedophiles (including boy addicts) worldwide