Soups, Stocks and Sauces. The Bones of Cooking. Liquids. Flavorful liquid Water, seasoned with herbs and spices Fruit juices Tomato juices. Broth vs. Stock. Broth is simmered in a flavored liquid for a long time Made with meat, poultry, fish or vegetables
Soups, Stocks and Sauces The Bones of Cooking
Liquids • Flavorful liquid • Water, seasoned with herbs and spices • Fruit juices • Tomato juices
Broth vs. Stock • Broth is simmered in a flavored liquid for a long time • Made with meat, poultry, fish or vegetables • Broths can be served as a finished product • Stock is simmered in a flavored liquid for a long time • Stock uses the bones, meat and flesh, shells and peels • Stocks are used to create other dishes and are not eaten alone
Safety and Sanitation • When using homemade stock in a recipe • Bring to boil • Kills microorganisms such as salmonella • Throw away cold stock that has foam or bubbles on the surface
Shortcuts • Positives • Quick • inexpensive • Negatives • Main ingredient is salt Canned Broth Soup Base Bouillon Cubes or Granules
Mirepoix French Cuisine • Onions—50% • Carrots—25% • Celery—25&
Stocks • For a brown stock, add onion skins • Depending upon time stock will cook, change size or mirepoix • Quick cooking time = small dice
Seasonings • Bouquet Garni • Pepper, bay leaves, thyme, parsley, and garlic • Added to stock at the beginning • Whole herbs are taken out at the end • Salt is not added to a stock because the end product is uncertain
Principles of Stock Making • Start with cold water • Simmer gently • Skim frequently • Strain • Cool • Store
Thickening Methods • Reduction • Simmering until some liquid evaporates • Concentrates flavors • Broths and Bouillons will not reduce because they lack collagen from bones.
Thickening Methods • Roux-equal parts of fat and flour cooked to form a paste • White Roux—cooked briefly until bubbly, used in white sauces • Blonde Roux—cooked slightly longer until it takes on a carmelized look. Has an ivory color • Brown Roux—Cooked until darker color and nutty aroma develops. Used in brown sauces.
Facts about Roux • Must be cooked to develop starches • The longer a roux cooks, the less thickening power it has. • A brown roux requires twice as much in order to thicken a product. • Must be cooked for 20 minutes to become fully incorporated
Cornstarch • Very popular, inexpensive thickening agent. • Provides a glossy finish to sauce • Breaks down and can not be reheated
Using Cornstarch • Must be mixed with a cold liquid before added to hot stock=Slurry • Allows grains to separate and begin thickening without clumping • Thickens immediately, but must be cooked to eliminate raw flavor
Legumes and Vegetables • Mashed starchy legumes and vegetables thicken the same as grains • Potatoes • Beans • Peas
Soup • Clear Soup • Consumme • Broth is clarified to make it clear • Cream Soup • Thickened with starch, pureed and cream is added • Pureed soup (potato) is blended
Special Preparation Soups • Chowder • Neither thick, nor clear—chunky by nature • Bisque—must have shellfish, thickened with cream
Special Preparation Soups • Fruit Soups • Uses fruit juice as a base and uses yogurt as a thickening agent. Tapioca may also be used as a thickening agent • Cold Soups • Served as appetizers • refreshing
Steps for Making Stew • Meat is cut into small pieces • Dredge meat in flour and brown in fat • Vegetables and herbs are sauteed in remaining fat • Meat and liquid are returned to pot • Simmer until meat is tender, usually 2-3 hours
Stews • Prepared by simmering small pieces of meat in a tightly covered pan. • Include vegetables, meat, poultry or fish • Contain less water than soup
Sauces • Purpose is to enhance flavor of the food—not cover it up! • The sauce is everything! It should be considered before the meal begins.