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Chapter 6 Stocks, Sauces, and Soups PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 6 Stocks, Sauces, and Soups
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  1. Chapter 6 Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

  2. Grand Sauces A sauce is a liquid or semisolid product that is used in preparing other foods. • Sauces add flavor, moisture, and visual appeal to another dish. • A saucier is a cook who specializes in making sauces. • There are five classical grand sauces that are the basis for most other sauces: • Béchamel: Made from milk and white roux • Velouté: Made from veal, chicken, or fish stock and a white or blond roux • Brown or Espagnole sauce: Made from brown stock and brown roux • Tomato sauce: Made from a stock and tomatoes • Hollandaise: This is an emulsion made from eggs, butter, and lemon. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

  3. Mother Sauces Mother sauce is a base sauce in which other sauces can easily be made. Derivative sauce is a sauce made from a mother sauce. • White (Béchamel) sauce • White sauce made from milk thickened with a white roux, flavored with onion, bay leaf, & nutmeg • Quality: • Smooth, creamy texture; thickness of heavy cream; white color; full flavor base • Derivative sauces: • Cheddar sauce • Crème sauce • Soubise • Mornay

  4. Mother Sauces • Velouté • White sauce made by thickening a white stock with a blond roux. • Quality: • Smooth, creamy texture; thickness of heavy cream; pale blond color; full flavor base • Derivates: • Allemande • Addition of mushrooms, lemon juice, egg yolks, & butter • Suprême • Addition of cream & butter • Normandy • Addition of fish stock, egg yolk, butter, & heavy cream

  5. Mother Sauce • Brown Sauce • Espagnole • Made by slowly reducing brown stock, small amount of tomato product, & a brown roux • Demi-Glace • Made by reducing espagnole sauce to a nappe’ consistency • 50% espagnole, 50% brown stock; reduced by 50% • Another version is jus lie’ (reduced brown stock thickened with cornstarch or arrowroot) • Derivatives: • Bordelaise • Charcutière • Chasseur • Madère • Bercy

  6. Mother Sauce • Tomato • Made from cooked (pureed) tomatoes, white stock, and can have blond roux, & mirepoix • Derivates: • Paprika & cream • Pureed garlic • Fresh herbs • Sweet red peppers & chilies

  7. Mother Sauce • Hollandaise • Hot emulsified sauce that combines egg yolks & warm clarified butter with white vinegar, lemon juice, cayenne pepper, & salt • Must be prepared with extreme care • Derivates: • Béarnaise • Vinegar, shallots, parsley, tarragon • Chantilly • Unsweetened whipped cream • Choron • Cooked, diced tomatoes or tomato puree • Maltaise • Blood orange juice & zest

  8. Basic Ingredients in Sauces Sauces need a liquid component. A key ingredient in sauce is the thickener, which adds richness and body. • Roux is a thickener made of equal parts cooked flour and a fat, such as clarified butter, oil, or shortening. • Beurre manié is a thickener made of equal parts flour and soft, whole butter. • A slurry, cornstarch mixed with a cold liquid, can be used instead of roux. • A liaison is a mixture of egg yolks and heavy cream, often used to finish some sauces. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

  9. Thickening Agents Sauces are thicken to nappé consistency. Nappé means that the sauce is thick enough to coat the back of a spoon • Roux • 50% fat; 50% flour that is cooked • White for béchamel • Blond for velouté • Brown for espagnole • Slurry • Uses cornstarch or arrowroot starch to thicken sauce • Beurre Manié • 50% fat; 50% flour that is uncooked

  10. Preparing DifferentKinds of Sauces • Compound butter is a mixture of raw butter and various flavoring ingredients, such as herbs, nuts, citrus zest, shallots, ginger, and vegetables. • Coulis is a thick puréed sauce. • Salsa is a cold mixture of fresh herbs, spices, fruits, and/ or vegetables. It can be used as a sauce for meat, poultry, fish, or shellfish. • Jus-lié is a sauce made from the juices from cooked meat and brown stock. • The easiest way to strain sauce is the wringing method. In this method, place a clean cheesecloth over a bowl, and pour the sauce through the cheesecloth into the bowl. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Stocks, Sauces, and Soups

  11. Other Sauces • Butter Sauces • Beurre blanc • Made as an emulsion containing white wine, vinegar, minced or chopped shallots, unsalted butter, heavy cream (or water), and seasonings • Beurre noisette • Means “brown butter”; finished with lemon juice • Relish • Coarsely chopped vegetables & fruits marinated in vinegar • Chutney • Related to relishes but uses different spices; ranges from mild to spicy hot

  12. Section 6.2 Summary • There are five classical grand sauces that are the basis for most other sauces. These are béchamel, velouté, brown or espagnole sauce, tomato sauce, and hollandaise. • Thickeners, such as roux, beurre manié, slurry, and liaison, add richness and body to sauces. • There are other sauces that are not classified as grand sauces or as derivatives of grand sauces. These include compound butters, salsa, and coulis. In addition, some sauces are made with the natural juices from meat, such as jus-lié or au jus. • You should match sauces to the type of food you are serving. Consider factors such as the main ingredient of the dish and how the flavors will complement each other. 6.2 Chapter 6 | Stocks, Sauces, and Soups