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Figurative Language. Alliteration. Alliteration is the repetition of identical consonant sounds in words Example: “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.” Example: “ Tim took tons of tools to make toys for tots”. Apostrophe.

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alliteration
Alliteration
  • Alliteration is the repetition of identical consonant sounds in words

Example: “Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers.”

Example: “Tim took tons of tools to make toys for tots”

apostrophe
Apostrophe
  • In grammar, an apostrophe is a punctuation mark; however, in poetry apostrophe is an invisible force like nature, god or ghost, is being addressed or called upon as if they were present.

Example: In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus asks, “Oh Zeus! What plaything will you make of me?!”

blank verse
Blank Verse
  • In most poems, lines are written according to a certain rhythm. Blank verse is poetry that does not rhyme, but keeps the rhythm.

Example:

“What is the boy now, who has lost his ball,What, what is he to do? I saw it go”

assonance
Assonance
  • Unlike alliteration, assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds without repeating consonants.

Example: “Fleet feet sweep by sleeping geese”

slide6
Pun

A joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word.

Example: “A horse is a very stable animal.”

“An elephant’s opinion carries a lot of weight.”

“The trampoline was on sale for fifty cents…I jumped on the offer.”

free verse
Free Verse

A form of poetry that has no particular rhythm. Free verse can rhyme, but it does not have to.

Example:

“After the Sea-Ship—after the whistling winds;

After the white-gray sails, taut to their spars and ropes,

Below, a myriad, myriad waves, hastening, lifting up their necks, 

Tending in ceaseless flow toward the track of the ship” 

euphemism
Euphemism

A mild or indirect word or expression substituted for one considered to be too harsh or blunt when referring to something unpleasant or embarrassing

Example: “That person is a few sandwiches short of a picnic”

Example: “Their brother’s soul is at rest now”

enjambment
Enjambment
  • The continuation of a sentence or clause over a line-break

Example: “I carry your heart with me (I carry it inmy heart) I am never without it (anywhereI go you go, my dear; and whatever is doneby only me is your doing, my darling)”

allusion
Allusion
  • A direct or indirect reference to something historical, literary, religious or mythical. The author will usually use references that will be understood by his audience.

Example: “Jennifer’s love of chocolate cake was her Achilles’ heel.”

imagery
Imagery
  • The use of words to create a certain picture in the reader’s mind. Imagery is usually based on sight, touch, hearing, taste and smell.

Example: “…the burnt out ends of smoky days,

The stale cold smell of morning.

The withered leaves collect at my feet,

And the wind begins to moan”

lyric
Lyric
  • A poem that has the form and musicality of a song. In lyrical poetry, the mood is usually very emotional

Example: “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?

Thou art more lovely and more temperate”

onomatopoeia
Onomatopoeia
  • The use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning

Example: clang, buzz, twang

prose
Prose
  • The ordinary language people use in speaking or writing

Example: “Although both Oedipus and Hector are tragic heroes, more readers admire Hector for his bravery and loyalty.”

idiom and clich
Idiom and Cliché

A group of words established by usage as having a meaning not clear from those of the individual words

Example: “Don’t count your chickens before they hatch”

Example: “The repairs on the house are costing us an arm and a leg”

stanza
Stanza
  • A group of lines which form a section of the poem

Example: DaylightSee the dew on the sunflowerAnd a rose that is fadingRoses whither awayLike the sunflowerI yearn to turn my face to the dawnI am waiting for the day . . . MidnightNot a sound from the pavementHas the moon lost her memory?She is smiling aloneIn the lamplightThe withered leaves collect at my feetAnd the wind begins to moan

slide17
Tone
  • The overall feeling or effect created by a writer’s use of words. This feeling may be serious, humorous or critical

Example: “What a nice dress!” vs. “Uh yeah. Nice dress there…real nice.”

metaphor
Metaphor
  • A figure of speech in which a comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something in common.

Example: “Men's words are bullets that their enemies take up and make use of against them."

paradox
Paradox

A statement or proposition that leads to a conclusion that seems contradictory and logically unacceptable

Example: “I can resist anything but temptation”

Example: “Nobody goes to that restaurant because it is too crowded”

simile
Simile
  • A comparison of two things using the words “like” or “as”

Example: “You eat like a pig.”

“You play basketball like a professional”

“This room is as bright as a sunny day.”

personification
Personification
  • The act of giving character traits to non-living objects, animals or nature.

Example:

“The sun kissed the flowers.”

“The leaves were dancing in the wind.”

verse
Verse
  • A single line in poetry

Example: “Shall I compare thee to a summers’ day?”

connotation
Connotation

An idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning.

Example: “For some students, ‘homework’ is a four-letter word.”

denotation
Denotation

The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests.

slide25
Mood
  • The feeling or emotional state of the speaker in a poem. Mood lets the reader know about the speaker’s state of mind.

Example:

“And neither the angels in Heaven above,

Nor the demons under the sea

Can dissever my soul from the soul

Of the beautiful Annabel Lee.”

hyperbole
Hyperbole
  • Obvious and intentional exaggeration used for effect and emphasis

Example: “I was so tired, I could have slept all year.”

“If you don’t clean your room, your mom is going to kill you.”

“If you don’t read Jane Eyre,

Miss Hasholian put a million

questions on the final exam.”

metonymy
Metonymy
  • A figure of speech in which one word is substituted for another with which it is closely associated.

Example: “My cousins from France are coming to the U.S.”

“My cousins from France are coming to America.”

antithesis
Antithesis
  • Two opposite ideas expressed evenly in a balanced sentence

Example: “Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless;

Knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.”

symbol symbolism
Symbol/Symbolism
  • Symbol: A word or object that stands for another word or object
  • Symbolism: Frequent use of words, places, characters, or objects that mean something beyond what they are on a literal level
oxymoron
Oxymoron
  • A figure of speech in which unequal terms appear side by side.

Example: “That girl is pretty ugly.”

“She is a little pregnant.”

“This pie tastes awfully good.”

“I got that math problem almost exactly correct.”

allegory
Allegory
  • The representation of morals or principles through characters or events

Example: In the Harry Potter books, there is an allegorical character named Draco Malfoy.

Example: In Hard Times, Charles Dickens creates a character named Mr. McChoackumchild.

analogy
Analogy
  • A comparison of two dissimilar things put together to clarify a point or make an image.

Example: “Fish are to water as birds are to sky.”

“Fork is to food as saw is to wood”

anecdote
Anecdote
  • A short and amusing or interesting story about an incident or a person.
motif
Motif
  • The recurring subject, theme or idea in a poem, novel, play or other literary work
anaphora
Anaphora

Example:

Good morning! Good morning!

We’ve slept the whole night through.

Good morning! Good morning!

To you and you and you and you!

  • The repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of a poem or song.
haiku
Haiku
  • A haiku is a Japanese poem of three lines and seventeen syllables. Although it does not have to do so, a haiku usually discusses some part of nature.

The first line has 5 syllables

The second line has 7 syllables

The third line has 5 syllables

limerick
Limerick
  • A limerick is an Irish poem of five lines, three long and two short. A limerick usually tells a funny story and/or makes little sense

The first, second and last lines have 8 or 9 syllables

The third and fourth lines have 5 or 6 syllables

sonnet
Sonnet

A sonnet is a 14 line poem with a very specific structure.

A sonnet has three stanzas, each with four lines with every other line rhyming.

Each line in a sonnet is ten syllables long

The last two lines of a sonnet is a couplet.

sonnet continued
Sonnet Continued…

Meter: the basic rhythm structure of a poem

Iamb: a metrical foot consisting of one stressed and one unstressed syllable.

Iambic Pentameter: the name given to a line of verse that consists of five iambs

Quatrain: Four lines of a sonnet

sonnet structure
Sonnet Structure

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? a

Thou art more lovely and more temperate. b

Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May, a

And summer's lease hath all too short a date. b

Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines, c

And often is his gold complexion dimmed; d

And every fair from fair sometime declines, c

By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimmed; d

But thy eternal summer shall not fade, e

Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st, f

Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade, e

When in eternal lines to Time thou grow'st. f

So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see, g

So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. g