1. Militarism • Definition: The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for War • To be a great power, European nations believed you must have a powerful military • To be a great power, means you must mobilize quickly in case of war • What do you think??
2. Alliances • Otto von Bismark fears that the French will want their lands back (Alsace and Lorraine) took during Franco-Prussian War and unification • Bismark makes alliances with Austria-Hungary and Russia (even though AH and R are bitter enemies) • Kaiser Wilhelm II ends Russia’s treaty and sets out to make Germany’s power known throughout the world what is this known as?
3. Imperialism • Quest for colonies often pushed Europeans to the brink of war • 1905 and 1911, France and Germany clash over Morocco • Competition for overseas empires rivalry and distrust deepened
4. Nationalism • Deep devotions to one’s country • Competition for materials and markets (makes a country stronger!) • Great Britain and Germany competed for industrial dominance • Territorial disputes • France and GermanyAlsace-Lorraine) • Austria-Hungary and Russia over control of the Balkans • In the Balkans- increased
Europe’s Powder Keg • New nations after the Crimean War- Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Romania, and Serbia • Serbia hoped to absorb all Slavs into its country Russia supported b/c of similar Slavic heritage • Austria-Hungary is fearful of Serbian power because of its large Slavic population (NO REVOLTS!)
Europe’s Powder Keg, continued • 1908: Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia and Herzegovia • Russia stands behind Serbia • Germany gives Austria-Hungary full support (Russia and Serbia back down)
A shot rings throughout Europe • Heir to the Austrian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife visit Sarajevo (the capital of Bosnia) • GavriloPrincip shot them. He was a member of the Black Hand, a secret society committed to riding Bosnia of Austrian rule. • He was also Serbian
Austria, with the support of an angry Germany, gives Serbia an ultimatum, which is a list of demands that if not met, will lead to serious consequences • Serbian knew that they could not defeat Austria, so they agree to most of the demands and gave an offer to have the others settled by an international conference
Austria refuses negations and declares war on Serbia • Russian mobilizes its troops and other Europeans are alarmed
Credits • http://www.ww1-propaganda-cards.com/