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World War I. World War I. Voices from the past: “I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it.” President Woodrow Wilson, 1923. World War I.

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world war i1
World War I

Voices from the past:

“I can predict with absolute certainty that within another generation there will be another world war if the nations of the world do not concert the method by which to prevent it.”

  • President Woodrow Wilson, 1923
world war i2
World War I
  • Objectives for today:
    • Identify the causes of WWI (25-1).
    • Identify the events that led the U.S. to enter WWI (25-2).
    • Explain how the war was fought on the home front *.
    • Discuss the human cost of WWI *.
    • Discuss the goals of Wilson’s Fourteen Points (25-3).
    • Describe the outcome of the Versailles peace conference (25-4).
  • Text: Chapter 25
  • Quiz: 2-19-08
world war i3
World War I
  • Review
    • 1900-1920
    • Reform Presidents:
      • Theodore Roosevelt – trustbuster and conservationist
      • William Taft – 17th Amendment (direct election of senators)
      • Woodrow Wilson – Federal income tax
world war i4
World War I
  • Review
    • President Wilson was an idealist who wanted the U.S. to stop using military force and economic pressure as a tool of foreign policy. What is this type of foreign policy called?
    • Imperialism!
    • When war erupted in Europe in 1914, the U.S. declared neutrality, but were soon forced to enter the war on the Allied side.
causes of wwi
Causes of WWI
  • Europe
    • By 1900, Europe was a collection of highly industrialized nations seeking to establish empires.
    • This produced an environment of rivalry and tension in Europe.
    • Many central and eastern European empires were “mixed”: they included several nationalities and languages.
causes of wwi1
Causes of WWI
  • The Balkans
    • An area of Slavic peoples in SE Europe.
    • 3 major powers historically fought over this piece of land:
      • Russia
      • Austria-Hungary
      • The Ottoman Empire
    • Austria-Hungary annexes part of the Balkan territory.
causes of wwi2
Causes of WWI
  • Alliances
    • An arms race develops as tensions grow over the annexation.
    • Nations begin to form alliances to protect themselves.
    • Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary is assassinated by a Serbian radical, providing the spark that sets off the powder keg.
causes of wwi3
Triple Alliance (Central Powers)

Germany

Austria-Hungary

Ottomans

Italy

Triple Entente (Allied Powers)

France

Russia

Great Britain

United States (1917)

Causes of WWI
u s involvement
U.S. Involvement
  • Question: What are good reasons for going to war?
    • Response to threat
    • Honor an alliance
    • Acquire something
    • Religion
    • Broken alliance
    • Moral reasons
  • How do these reasons compare to your personal reasons for using force?
u s involvement1
U.S. Involvement
  • Neutrality
    • The U.S. did not want to get involved in a European conflict.
  • Strain on Neutrality
    • German U-Boat (unterseeboot) campaign against U.S. passenger ships.
    • Zimmermann Note – Mexican/German alliance, promise to regain TX, AZ, NM.
home front
Home Front
  • Raising an Army
    • U.S. participation in WWI turned the tide.
    • The Allies were in danger of defeat.
    • “Doughboys” – 10 million men sign up, 4.8 million inducted into the armed forces.
    • African Americans – 370K drafted, still face much discrimination.
home front1
Home Front
  • Mobilizing for War
    • Training a whole nation for war.
    • The U.S. as one gigantic factory under one management.
    • Daylight Savings Time
    • Women – fill millions of vacant male positions.
    • Blacks – the “Great Migration” north to better paying factory jobs.
    • Civilians – “Wheatless Monday,” “Meatless Tuesday,” “Victory Gardens.”
    • George M. Cohan – Over There
home front2
Home Front
  • Controlling Public Opinion
    • Espionage and Sedition Acts – severe penalties for spying, war resistance.
    • Spying on neighbors
    • Prison time for disloyal talk
    • Banned literature
  • What is your opinion on restricting personal freedom during wartime?
human cost
Human Cost
  • New Weaponry
    • Machine gun
    • Flame thrower
    • Poison gas
    • Hand grenade
    • Tank
    • Trench mortars
human cost7
Human Cost
  • War Deaths
    • American Civil War – 620,000
    • Battle of the Somme (France) – 1,000,000 dead
    • WWI combat total – 10,000,000 dead
    • War-related death – 20,000,000 dead
    • Crippled – 6,000,000
human cost8
Human Cost
  • Cost of the War
    • $44 million per day
    • $33 billion total
    • 1/3 from taxes
    • 2/3 from war bonds
fourteen points
Fourteen Points
  • Wilson’s Vision of a New World Order
    • Disarmament
    • Freedom of the seas
    • Open diplomacy
    • Self-determination
    • Peace keeping forces
treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Peace Plan
    • WWI ended in a victor’s peace.
    • 27 nations send delegates to Versailles, France in 1919.
    • Europe and its colonies are chopped up.
    • Germany is punished:
      • Lost territory and colonies
      • Forced to pay war reparations for damages
project
Project
  • Activity: Letters from the Trenches
    • Make trenches
    • Gunfire, mortars crashing down
    • Rats, mud, blood, human waste
    • Frostbite