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World War I

World War I

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World War I

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  1. World War I Mr. Makal US History 10/27/09

  2. War Breaks Out in Europe

  3. Assassination of Franz Ferdinand • Eyewitness Account: Count von Harrach was in the car when the Archduke and Duchess were killed • "As I was drawing out my handkerchief to wipe away the blood from the Archduke's lips, her Highness cried out: "For God's sake! What happened to you?" Then she sank down from her seat with her face between the Archduke's knees. I had no idea that she had been hit and thought that she had fainted from shock. His Royal Highness said "Sophie, Sophie, don't die. Live for my children." I seized the Archduke by the coat collar to prevent his head from sinking forward and asking him: "Is your highness in great pain?" To which he clearly answered: "It is nothing." His face was slightly distorted, and he repeated six or seven times, every time losing more consciousness and with a fading voice: "It is nothing." Then came a brief pause followed by a convulsive rattle in his throat, caused by a loss of blood. This ceased on arrival at the governor's residence. The two unconscious bodies were carried into the building where their death was soon established."

  4. Causes of WWI • Imperialism • Britain, France, Germany, and Italy all competed for colonies in Africa. Because it had fewer colonies, Germany thought that it deserved more.

  5. Causes of WWI 2. Nationalism • Full of pride and loyalty to country. Wanted to be the best. Stemmed to ethnicity as well - better than others

  6. Causes of WWI 3. Militarism • The need for a large military to show strength and ability/willingness to fight.

  7. Causes of WWI 4. Alliances Nations tied together for economic and political gain. One small skirmish could lead to all out war between groups of allies.

  8. Central Powers and Allies • Central Powers - Austria-Hungary, Germany and Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria • Allies – Serbia, Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy and 7 other countries.

  9. Stalemate in the Trenches • Thought the war would be over shortly – maybe a few __________ • Germany invades Belgium to get to France._______________.

  10. Stalemate in the Trenches • First battle came as Germans broke into France – Battle of the _______ • Continued for 3 years

  11. Trench Warfare New style of War – Trench Warfare • Stretched from English Channel through France and onto Switzerland. • Sat in mud and rat infested trenches firing machine guns at the opposing side. • Sniper fire • Artillery shelling • Poison gas Actual fighting would cost thousands of lives, usually without gaining an inch of ground.

  12. In the Trenches

  13. Death in the Trenches

  14. Trenchfoot

  15. Trench Layout

  16. Trench Diagram

  17. “All Quiet on the Western Front” • "I am young, I am twenty years old; yet I know nothing of life but despair, death, fear, and fatuous superficiality cast over an abyss of sorrow. I see how peoples are set against one another, and in silence, unknowingly, foolishly, obediently, innocently slay one another." - Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet On The Western Front, Ch. 10

  18. “All Quiet on the Western Front” • "But now, for the first time, I see you are a man like me. I thought of your hand-grenades, of your bayonet, of your rifle; now I see your wife and your face and our fellowship. Forgive me, comrade. We always see it too late. Why do they never tell us that you are poor devils like us, that your mothers are just as anxious as ours, and that we have the same fear of death, and the same dying and the same agony--Forgive me, comrade; how could you be my enemy?" - Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet On The Western Front, Ch. 9

  19. Time to Write • Describe how you feel having read and listened to this man’s words. What does this tell you about the war?

  20. Battle of Somme Battle of Somme • July and November 1916 • 1.2 million casualties • ______________– 400,000 dead or wounded • German – __________________ • French – 200,000 • Despite this, the allies gained about ____________miles.

  21. A War of New Technology • New Technology = Higher death toll • The Tank – British • Machine Guns – 600 bullets a minute • Poison gas – burned and blinded soldiers • Airplanes

  22. Manfred von Richthofen • “The Red Baron” • Germany’s Ace – downed 5 or more planes • Red Baron downed more than 80 planes

  23. U-Boats and Submarines • Used to block trade • Equipped with both guns and _______________ • German U-Boats downed over _______ million tons of Allied Shipping

  24. America’s Path to War • President Woodrow Wilson announced the neutrality of the US in 1914. • In May 1915, German U-Boat torpedoed the British Lusitania, killing 1,198 people, 128 Americans. The sinking turned many Americans against Germany.

  25. America’s Path to War • The Zimmerman Telegram – a telegram that the British intercepted that was created by Arthur Zimmerman, German foreign minister, told the German ambassador in Mexico to propose to Mexico that they join the Germans. In return, the Germans would help Mexico get back its lost territories of Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. This made the Americans really mad

  26. Cont. • In March, German subs sank 3 US ships. Wilson declared war

  27. Revolution in Russia • Bolsheviks take over in Russia • Led by ______________ • Communist party and the start of communism in Russia • Russia worked with __________ for a peace treaty. • Allies desperately need help form the Americans

  28. America Joins the FightSection 2 • US not ready for war • US instituted a draft to “beef-up” the armed forces • Selective Service Act – May, 1917 • All men 21-30 had to sign for military action • Less than 200,000 men • By the end of 1918, 3 million men had been drafted

  29. Minorities Serve in the War • 50,000 women served during WWI as well • Red Cross • Military • Naval clerical workers – 12,000 • Nurses • 400,000 African Americans go to war • Still face discrimination • Came from their own soldiers; not the foreign enemy • 2 African American combat divisions were created

  30. Oh SHIP… • Use of a convoy system • Protects/guards merchant ships across the Atlantic • Uses destroyers and cruisers to guard the merchant ships • Use of mines • 70,000 mines in the North Sea • 180 miles of minefield • Almost impossible for U-Boats to enter • Battleships

  31. American Troops Enter • America enters in June of 1917 • France • Europe already at war for 3 years when the US enters • Germans and other Central Powers tried to end the war before the US got involved. • Within 2 months, the Central Powers destroyed lines in France and made way to the Marne River – 50 miles from Paris. • Here come the Americans – 1 million strong

  32. American Troops

  33. Continued • May 28th – American soldiers attacked the town of Cantigny which was occupied by the Germans. • Within 2 hours, the US had pushed back and beat the Germans, giving the Allies morale and hope. • Americans continue to push the Germans back and with the help of the French and other Allies, push the Germans back into Belgium and Germany.

  34. 2nd Battle of Marne

  35. The Second Battle of Marne • Summer of 1918 – • Turning point of the War • 3 days of fighting • 85,000 Americans helped the Allies push the Germans back, cutting off supply lines and forcing the Central Powers to retreat. • By September, Germans lost all of the land that they had gained in the spring • Meuse-Argonne offensive - Victory • Alvin York • Eddie Rickenbacker

  36. Germany Stops Fighting

  37. Germany Stops Fighting • After the defeat at Meuse-Argonne, the German navy mutinied and its allies dropped out…uh oh… • General Ludendorff advised the German Government to seek out a peace process • November 9th, the German Kaiser stepped down • 2 days later, November 11th, the Germans agreed to an Armistice. • Armistice – an end to fighting • 11th hour on the 11th day of the 11th month – fighting ended

  38. Aftermath • 8.5 million dead • 21 million wounded • Millions of civilians died from mass starvation and disease • Families were torn apart

  39. Section 3Life on the Home Front • Preparations for War • Jobs open up for Women in the absence of men • Many would lose these jobs upon the return of the soldiers

  40. Mobilizing for War • WWI cost the United States $35.5 Billion • War Bonds – paid for 2/3 of America’s war debt • Low interest loans Americans sold to the US government that would be repaid over a period of time • Citizens needed to buy war bonds to help support the US military

  41. War Bonds Posters

  42. American Resourcefullness • Collecting tin cans, bandages, apricot pits • “Victory Gardens” • Women’s groups knit sweaters, socks, and hospital gowns for soldiers

  43. Cont • Preserved food on specific days of the week • Meatless days of the week • Drove less • No “Sunday drives” • Almost anything that could be saved and used by the troops was.

  44. War Propoganda • President Wilson creates a Committee on Public Information • Job was to create propaganda • Committee sold the war through visual and written messages

  45. More Propoganda

  46. Intolerance and Suspicion • Propaganda also stirred prejudice and anti-German feelings • Words change • Hamburger becomes “Salisbury Steak” • Berlin becomes Brunswick • Espionage Act • Sedition Act • Laws made war protest illegal and carried long prison sentences and fines

  47. Backlash • Anti-war supporters received harsh treatment • Eugene Debs spent 10 years in jail for his socialist views and remarks • What about our rights?

  48. New Jobs and the Great Migration • Between 1910 and 1920, 500,000 African Americans moved North to take jobs in the factories, vacated by white men going off to war. • Called “Great Migration” • Hoped for a better life in the North • New jobs for women • Ammunition factories, steel mills, streetcar conductors