World War I Consequences and Results: Russia and Germany Mary Ann Wilson Midland Valley High School Global Studies Honors Grade 9-10
Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Social: • almost 10 million soldiers were killed and over 20 million are wounded • millions of civilians died as a result of the hostilities, famine, and disease • the world was left with hatred, intolerance, and extreme nationalism.
Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Continued Economic: • the total cost of the war: over $350 billion. How was this paid for??? • heavy taxes: causes lower standard of living for the European people. • international trade suffers: nations raise the tariffs on imports and exports. • Russia: communist seize power and introduce a new economic system. • economic collapses bring on the Great Depression of the late 1920’s and 1930’s.
Aftermath of World War I: Consequences Continued Political: • U. S. emerges as a world power because of the assumption of international responsibilities. • 3 major European dynasties are taken out of power: Romanovs--Russia, Hohenzollerns--Germany, Hapsburgs--Austria-Hungary. • New states are created in central Europe, some containing several different nationalities, especially in Poland and Czechoslovakia. • The League of Nations is created to solve international problems and maintain world peace. Will be a failure. • Many nations turn to military dictatorships—primarily Russia, Italy, and Germany, to control their political problems.
Germany: Treaty of Versailles 1. Germany’s financial responsibility for the war. a. War Guilt Clause (moral responsibility) 2. Exclusion from the League of Nations 3. loss of territory (Alsace and Lorraine in particular) a. creation of the Rhineland b. The Sudetenland goes to Czechoslovakia c. Territories given to Denmark, Poland, and Belgium 4. Separation of Austria and Germany 5. Limitation of German armies (100,000 volunteer troops), no air force, u-boats and only 6 battleships
The League of Nations • Purpose: • eliminate international anarchy • prevent war by encouraging disarmament and settling the international disputes that may occur in a peaceful manner • solve economic and social problems through international cooperation
Why Did the League Fail? The United States Contribution: • rejected the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations and accepted a policy of Isolationism. Why? • The League might possibly drag the U. S. back into another war -- this would be a violation of the Constitution where Congress only has the power to declare war. • The League might interfere in our own domestic affairs. • The U.S. felt the League would be dominated by England and its buddies. • The League membership would involve the U.S. in the problems of the entire world and violate the policy of Isolationism. • NEVER joined the League of Nations. However we did, in a limited manner cooperate with the League by joining the International Labor Organization
Why Did the League Fail? Other Failures: • Membership was not inclusive of major nations: • Russia joined in 1934 but was kicked out in 1939 • Germany and Japan pulled out in 1933 • Italy withdrew in 1936 • Voting on issues required a unanimous vote • Member nations retained their National Sovereignty – their ability to act independently of other nations. The League did not have the power to enforce the power to tax, draft, and enforce its own decisions. It could ask for things from the member nations but it did not have the power to force it from them. • The League failed in several major takeovers during the 1930’s, in particular aggression from Japan, Italy and Germany. (The German aggression was in direct violation to the Treaty of Versailles.) • League disbanded in 1946 by its own vote and transferred its powers (what little it had) to the newly created United Nations.
Germany and Russia: Brest-Litovsk Conditions of Treaty • Russia loses much land in Western Russia to Germany and its allies • Russia is to demobilize its armies and either bring all ships into ports or disarm them.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Cont’d • The Ukraine, Estonia, Livonia, Finland will be cleared of Russian troops and will be allowed to be propaganda free of Russian manipulation against the Axis powers. • Livonia and Estonia will be occupied by a German police force • All Finnish ports will be cleared of Russian vessels • Russia must compensate Axis powers for monies lost during the war • Note: this is a brief synopsis of the treaty
Russia to the USSR • Czar Nicholas II and family assassinated • the Russian government falls into the hands of Premier Vladimir Lenin and his War Minister Leon Trotsky. • Russia is pulled out of WWI with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
Russian Civil War 1917-1921 • The anti-Bolsheviks, called “whites”, led by former Czarist officers, vs. the Bolsheviks “reds”. • They are also facing attacks from outside Russia, coming from Poland and the Allied nations who disliked the concept of Communism. (1st of several Red Scares) “Vrangel still alive. Rest him without mercy”
Rise of Joseph Stalin • 1922: Lenin dies and Stalin fights his way to power. • Revived Russia’s economy: 5 Year Plans • Collectivization of all industry and agriculture • Creation of the Worker State Result of 5 Year Plans Hard Work of Peasant
Stalin: Continued • Problems of Economic Policy: • Industry: much waste and error. High production costs and goods were often of poor quality. • Agriculture: 20 % of labor force worked in agriculture and cannot keep up with production as population increased. Crude farming methods and poor equipment lead to peasant’s resentment of collectivization.
Stalin Continued Other issues: • Religious persecutions of Jews, Roman Catholics and Moslems. • State religion is Atheism • Working conditions, in most situations were deplorable and pay was inconsequential. Suffering of the common man (proletariat) is unbearable.
Germany--Weimar Republic-1920’s The Weimar Republic: • discredited in the eyes of the world AND Germany • everyone is blaming the communists, Jews amd liberals for the problems of the Weimar Republic. • Political Extremism—Communist (left) and fascist and extreme nationalist (right). • Economic disaster
Why is the Weimar Republic Disliked? • Blamed for the forced acceptance of the Treaty of Versailles • Blamed for the rampant economic failure of Germany after World War I • Blamed for the social distress that is sky-rocketing around Germany • Cannot control the problems that are rocketing throughout the country • The people are looking for SALVATION
Adolf Hitler • Hitler: born in Austria (1889) • influenced by the nationalism and anti-Semitism of the time. • 1921—talented public speaker whose forum is the streets. • Joins the National Socialist German Workers Party
Adolf Hitler • Nov. 8, 1923—Beer Hall Putsch. Arrested and imprisoned for 9 months (sentenced for longer) • writes Mein Kampf in prison. Points of book: a. going to sway the people with propaganda b. going to free them from the constraints of the Treaty of Versailles c. the Jews, Communists, and Liberals caused the war and should be removed
Hitler • 1924: rebuilds the banned Nazi Party. • Begins to place members in the Reichstag. • By 1932—Nazi Party is the largest political party in Germany. • Jan. 30, 1933—appoint Hitler Chancellor—2nd in command of the German government behind Pres. Paul von Hindenburg.
Hitler • Hitler immediately pushes through the Enabling Act: allows the German Gov’t to suspend the civil rights of the German people. a. censor mail b. suspend rights of assembly c. press is no longer free. • March 1933: Hindenburg dies of natural causes. • Hitler combines the offices of Chancellor and President and declares himself the Fuhrer (leader) and begins his “Third Reich” that would last a 1000 years.
Why does Hitler Succeed? • Germany: The conditions of the 1920’s • economic distress: rabid inflation and devaluation of the currency. • Worldwide Depression collapses the little bit of economic success the lower and middle classes had. • rising unemployment • Fear of Communism: middle class supported the Nazis • Appeal of Nationalism: Germans had never lost a major conflict--were convinced they had not really lost World War I. They were sold out! Nazis exploited this feeling. • Anti-Semitism • Weak government—Weimar Republic • Lack of a democratic tradition: Weimar Republic was a democracy of sorts. • Hitler—the man himself and his charismatic leadership
NAZI Rule • Nazi Rule: • Government: all parties except the Nazi party are illegal • Hitler is supreme • create the Gestapo, under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler. This is a brutal police who arrest and suppress without mercy. • create the 1st concentration camp at Dachau • Propaganda leader: Joseph Goebbels: controlled the media throughout the country to make sure that only Nazi ideas were propagated.
Propaganda: The Internal Enemy • Science and Culture creates the idea of the Supreme Race • Enemy of the “Aryan” • Treatment of Jews 1933-1939: Nuremburg Laws
Hitler’s goal was Lebensraum (living space) • 1936: Rome-Berlin Axis with Italy • 1936: assisted Franco in his civil war in Spain • 1936: invades and take the Rhineland (created by Treaty of Versailles) • 1938: Anschluss: union of Germany and Austria • 1938: takes the Sudetenland (Czech. Owned German speaking) Allies protest! • Promised to not take anymore. • 1938: Takes Czecholoslovakia • 1939: Blitz of Poland
Bibliography • Gordan, Irving. World History, Second Ed. New York: Amsco School Publications. 1996. • Hacken, Richard. “3 March, 1918: The Peace Treaty of Brest-Litovsk”. http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7wwI1918/brestlitovsk. July 10, 2007. • Keegan, John. The First World War. New York: Vintage Books, 1998. • Meyer, G. J. The Story of the Great War 1914 to 1918. New York: Bantam Dell, 2006. • Spielvogel, Jackson J., Ph.D. World History Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill, 2005.
Images All images were taken from the following websites. They were taken during the dates of April-July of 2007. • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk:http://www.dhm.de/lemo/objekte/pict/ph003800/index.jpg • Vladimir Lenin: http://cla.calpoly.edu:16080/~lcall/lenin.gif • Russian Civil War: http://digitalgallery.nypl.org • Soviet Worker Posters: http://www.johndclare.net/images • Joseph Stalin: http://media.isnet.org • Adolf Hitler Posters (including Hitler Youth): http://z.about.com/d/history1900s/1/0/v/P/hitler36.gif • http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images • http://webarchiv.bundestag.de/archive/2005/0919/parlament/geschichte/parlhist/streifzug/g1929/g1929_6.html • http://library.thinkquest.org/C0111500/ww2/media/images/posters/ewigejude.jpg • http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/goebbels/gallery/images/g_06_1.jpg • http://www.dhm.de/lemo/objekte/pict/pli03468/index.jpg
Suggested Lessons • Discussion of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk a. Break class into separate groups: Czarist Russia, Bolshevik Russia, Germany, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, and Austria-Hungary. b. With the five separate sections, create groups of 4-5 (the actual number of groups will vary, depending on the class size.) c. Give each nation group a fact sheet of the treaty demands and have each group discuss the pros and cons of the treaty as these demands pertain to their country. d. Divide the groups again, choosing one from each group until you have remixed the groups into multi-national councils. Have these new councils negotiate the peace treaty. e. When completed with negotiations, have the students compare their results with the actual treaty and explain why their treaty was different or the same. • Propaganda: Included throughout the power point are a variety of different propaganda posters used by the Soviet Union and Germany during the 1920’s and 1930’s. Using the attached critique sheet of a poster, have the students analyze these posters and then compare them to those used before and during World War I.
Interpreting a Propaganda Poster • What is your initial reaction upon seeing this for the first time? Is it appealing? Informative? Does it bring forth any particular emotion(s)? • Who do you think created this? • When do you think this was created? • Why do you think this was created? • List any persons portrayed. • Describe any symbols or logos found. Who is the target audience of the poster? • What is the message(s) of this poster? • Does the layout and artwork of this poster appeal to you? Yes/No? Why? • 9. What is the reaction the creator is looking for in his target audience? • 10.After viewing this poster, are you more or less sympathetic to the cause of the artist? Why? • Amended from the Truman Presidential Library
Standards and Indicators http://ed.sc.gov/agency/offices/cso/standards/ss/documents/9INEZSocialStudiesStandards.pdf