World War I: Essential Questions • What caused WWI to begin? • Who were the combatants? • Why did the U.S. remain neutral for so long? • Why did the U.S. ultimately join the war on the side of the Allies? • How were the Civil Liberties of Americans restricted during the war? • Why did America return to a foreign policy of isolationism after the war?
America’s Entry into World War I Why did the U.S. get involved in these 3 wars?
Things to Know about WW I • The 5 main causes. • The major combatants, at the beginning and the end. • What brought America into the war. • The technology of the war. • The use of propaganda during the war. • The restrictions placed on civil liberties during the war.
World War I Outcome: Causes for World War I
Underlying Causes • What Causes Most Wars • Extreme Nationalism (“Super Patriotism” or love for one’s country) • Imperialism: Spreading the political or economic control of one country over another • Militarism: using force or the threat of force against another nation • Entangled system of alliances (secret) • Assassination
Causes of WWI – MANIA! • Militarism- policy of building up a strong military to prepare for war • Alliances –agreements between nations to provide aid and protect one another • Nationalism –extreme pride in one’s country • Imperialism –when one country takes over another country economically and politically. • Assassination – of Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand
Triple Alliance Triple Entente Alliances
Underlying Causes • Rival Alliances Created a “False Sense of Security” • Triple Entente • Great Britain: King George V • France: Premier Clemenceau • Russia: Czar Nicholas II • Triple Alliance • Germany: Kaiser Wilhelm II • Austria-Hungary: Franz Joseph • Italy: Emanuel III
Nationalism & Imperialism • Nationalism is a feeling of intense pride in one’s homeland. Nationalists emphasized their homeland’s culture and interests above other countries and they were willing to go to war to expand their nation at the expense of others. • Self-determination is another basic idea of nationalism. Self-determination is the idea that people who share a national identity should have their own country and government. • Imperialism: Great Britain, Germany and France needed foreign markets after the increase in manufacturing caused by the Industrial Revolution
Causes of World War I • What Caused World War I • Unrest in the Balkans • Bosnians felt abused under the rule of Austria-Hungary • Goal: To create a “Greater Serbia” (unite Slavic people) • This movement was strongly supported by “Mother Russia”
Causes of World War I • June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand (Austria’s heir to the throne) was assassinated by a Bosnian Serb Nationalist while on a good will trip to Sarajevo, Bosnia. This spark would ignite the war.
Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia.
Domino Effect Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia. Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary. Russia pledged their support for Serbia.
Domino Effect Germany declares war on Russia. France pledges their support for Russia. Germany declares war on France. Germany invades Belgium on the way to France. Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.
Causes of World War I • Alliance Unfolded: • Austria declared war on Serbia • Russia supported Serbia (mother country w/ethnic ties) • Germany sided w/Austria & declared war on Russia • France was obligated to help Russia & Great Britain to help France • By August 5, 1914, Europe was engulfed in war!
AlliedPowers World War I Central Powers
Causes of World War I • The Fighting Sides • Triple Alliance becomes “The Central Powers” (The Bad Guys) • Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria • Italy gave up its defensive agreement w/Germany & joined other side
Causes of World War I • Triple Entente becomes “The Allied Powers” or “Allies” (The Good Guys) • Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, • U.S. would join in April of 1917 • Eventually over 50 nations were involved in “The Great War”
Causes of World War I • Germany’s “Schlieffen Plan” to avoid a 2 front war failed • Front: zone of conflict between armies • Western Front would mostly be in France • Area between armies was known as “no man’s land” • Fighting two fronts puts a giant strain on resources and man power
Why was WWI a Stalemate? • What’s a stalemate? • Neither side can make a move to win. • Machine gun. How did this change war? How was it fought before? • Trench Warfare = “solution”. • Millions die without gaining ground.
What new weapons were used in WWI? • Tank • Poison gas • Airplane • Submarine • Machine gun • Why these weapons? Why now? INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION!!