I. Initial Neutrality • American Neutrality • Wilson issues neutrality proclamation on August 4, 1914. • By 1917, U.S. became a major supplier of Allied munitions, food, and raw materials.
II. Submarine Crisis: Road to War in Europe • 1915, Germans began use of U-Boats submarines • Began to attack unarmed British passenger ships. • Lusitania-British liner sunk of the coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915. • Arabic is sunk • “Arabic Pledge”—Germans will not attack unarmed passenger vessels.
Submarine Crisis: Road to War in Europe (cont’d) 6. The Sussex Pledge (Ultimatum) • March 24, 1916—unarmed French steamer torpedoed but not sunk • 7 American injured. • The pledge was: If ALL U-boat attacks on ALL ships did not stop, Wilson would sever all German relations.
Submarine Crisis: Road to War in Europe (cont’d) 7. Jan. 31, 1917-Germany would sink all ships, belligerent or neutral • Germany could win if they cut off the flow of supplies to the Allies. • Feb.3, 1917—U.S. ends diplomatic relations with Germany • U.S. merchant ships were sunk.
Submarine Crisis: Road to War in Europe (cont’d) 11. Zimmerman Telegram 12. From German foreign secretary, Arthur Zimmerman • U.S. receives it Feb. 24, 1917 • Mexico should attack the U.S. • The “lost territories” of TX, NM, and AZ would then be returned to Mex. • March 1, 1917-Released to the American public; war with Germany was necessary.
III. Impact of the War at Home • Wilson :”War to end all Wars” • Jan. 1918—Wilson announces his Fourteen Points. • Wilson wants “peace without victory”---the victors would not be vindictive toward the losers. • Abolishing secret treaties, • Freedom of the seas, • Free trade, • Arms reduction, • end of colonization
Impact of the War at Home (cont’d) • 14th Point—Wilson considered the most important • Called of a “general association of nations” to preserve the peace (League of Nations) • The U.S. many opposed it.
Impact of the War at Home (cont’d) • Committee of Public Information—by George Creel • Propaganda • Food Administration—Herbert Hoover • Reduce consumption • “Meatless Mondays” • “Victory Gardens”
War Industries Board • Production, wages, and prices of manufactured goods • Raising the Army? • Selective Service Act, 1917 • Conscription of males into military
Impact of the War at Home (cont’d) • Civil Liberties? • Germans; Anti-war protestors • Espionage & Sedition Acts • Schenck v. U.S. • Congress could limit free speech in wartimes
IV. Negotiating Peace • European powers wanted revenge! • League of Nations • Article X • Henry Cabot Lodge • Reservationists • Irreconcilables • U.S. never ratifies T.O.V • U.S. does not join League
The “Big Four” • Wilson George Wilson Clemenceau Orlando George