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World War II. World War Looms. Dictators Around the World. Soviet Union: Joseph Stalin and Communism (where the government owns everything and provides healthcare, education, and welfare) Italy: Benito Mussolini and fascism (the government owns business, but people have some power).

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dictators around the world
Dictators Around the World
  • Soviet Union: Joseph Stalin and Communism (where the government owns everything and provides healthcare, education, and welfare)
  • Italy: Benito Mussolini and fascism (the government owns business, but people have some power)
slide4

Germany: Adolph Hitler and Nazism (similar to fascism, but added race superiority)

  • Japan: Militaristic government
  • Spain: Francisco Franco and Nationalism (extreme love for their nation)
soviet union
Soviet Union
  • Stalin followed in the footsteps of Vladimir Lenin; wanted Communism at any cost; became a police state
  • Moved to a Socialist nation in 1927—meaning no private enterprises (even farming); wanted a totalitarian government—one with complete control over its people
  • Issued three separate five-year plans to create an industrial power—was very successful
  • Executed tens of thousands during The Great Purge where people were branded enemies; responsible for the deaths of up to 13 million people
italy
Italy
  • Fascism had a strong, centralized government with a powerful dictator
  • Il Duce—the chief—gained control after marching on Rome with thousands of followers; controlled every aspect of Italian life
  • Did not control the farms and factories like Stalin—had support from many jobless youth, veterans, and business owners
germany
Germany
  • Joined the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (the Nazi Party) in 1919; rooted in extreme nationalism
  • Ideas
    • Unite all German speaking people
    • Felt Aryans were superior
    • National expansion—”to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth”
  • Helped by the Great Depression—so many were out of work, they were desperate
  • Established the Third Reich—the Third German Empire
japan
Japan
  • Also wanted expanded living space for their growing population
  • Invaded the Chinese province of Manchuria and quickly gained control
spain
Spain
  • Francisco Franco led a fight with the Spanish Civil War
  • Assisted by Mussolini and Hitler
  • After 600,000 people had died and over $15 billion was spent to stop him, Franco controlled a totalitarian government
league of nations
League of Nations
  • Remember—the League of Nations was formed to help keep peace throughout the world after WWI
  • Japan was simply reprimanded for its invasion of Manchuria—so Japan simply withdrew from the League
  • Hitler began violating the Treaty of Versailles and Mussolini invaded Ethiopia
the united states response
The United States Response
  • Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts beginning in 1935 with a plan to keep the US out of war
  • In 1937, a poll showed 70% of Americans believed the US never should have entered WWI
  • FDR spoke out against isolationism in 1937 showing his desire to take action—the people protested and he backed off
war in europe
War in Europe
  • Hitler felt, “Germany’s problems can be solved only by means of force, and this is never without risk.”
  • Hitler met with Austria’s chancellor Kurt von Schuschnigg in February 1938 and demanded Austrian Nazis enter the government; although von Schuschnigg changed his mind, German troops marched into Austria unopposed on March 12, 1938
the munich pact
The Munich Pact
  • French premier Edouard Daladier and British prime minister Neville Chamberlain signed the agreement with Germany on September 30, 1938
  • Said the Sudetenland (an area of Czechoslovakia with German speaking people) would be the last land acquired by Nazi Germany
the german offensive begins
The German Offensive Begins
  • On March 15, 1939, “Czechoslovakia has ceased to exist.”
  • Hitler said German-speaking people in Poland were also being mistreated; he signed a nonaggression pact with Soviet Union (and secretly agreed to divide Poland between them)
  • On September 1, 1939, Germany debuted its blitzkrieg or lightning war in which it attacked by surprise; the Soviet Union attacked from the east
  • Britain and France declared war and by the end of the month, WWII had begun although it was termed a sitzkrieg (a sitting war) because there was no fighting
the soviet union joins in
The Soviet Union Joins In
  • Stalin and the Soviet Union decided to take back lands lost after WWI ended
    • The Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania fell easily
    • Finland put up a strong battle, but fell after three months of fighting
more german movement
More German Movement
  • German newspapers reported, “Germany is ready” on April 7, 1940
  • Germany invaded Denmark and Norway
  • Next, Hitler attacked the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg
the fall of france
The Fall of France
  • German troops entered France from the northeast and successfully isolated British and French troops
  • Italy joined in and invade the southern part of France
  • On June 21, 1940, Hitler took control of France
  • French general Charles de Gaulle fled to Britain and set up a government-in-exile
the battle of britain
The Battle of Britain
  • The German air force, the Luftwaffe, made bombing runs over Britain for two solid months in the late summer of 1940
  • 1000 German planes attacked British air fields, aircraft factories, and cities
  • Because the RAF (Britain’s Royal Air Force) used the new technology of radar and battled back bravely, Hitler called off the invasion indefinitely
roosevelt s feelings
Roosevelt’s Feelings
  • Remember—he had been in favor of US involvement
  • He personally knew some of Hitler’s advisors and believed they were crazy
  • He convinced Congress to pass a new neutrality act that allowed “cash and carry”—meaning Britain and France could buy weapons and ammo and transport them on their own ships
the axis powers
The Axis Powers
  • In September 1940, Japan, Germany, and Italy signed the Tripartite Pact—a mutual defense treaty
  • Roosevelt responded by increasing his assistance to France and Britain to avoid a two-ocean war
america continues support
America Continues Support
  • The US began boosting its defense spending
  • The Selective Training and Service Act was passed to register men between 21 and 35; 1 million were drafted to serve
  • The Lend-Lease Act was passed in 1941—the US would now “lend” arms to Britain
hitler invades the soviet union
Hitler Invades the Soviet Union
  • Invaded on June 22, 1941
  • The Soviets fought bravely, but destroyed everything in the path when forced to retreat (scorched-earth policy)
  • Lasted over six months
  • Roosevelt began sending lend-lease supplies to the Soviet Union
german submarines
German Submarines
  • Also known as U-boats
  • Traveled in groups of 15-20, known as wolf packs
  • Was an effective mode of attack for the Germans
  • Roosevelt gave the Navy permission to protect lend-lease ships against German U-boats
the atlantic charter
The Atlantic Charter
  • Declared both the US and Great Britain wanted
    • No extra land
    • To keep self-control
    • To let people choose their own government
    • Free trade
    • Cooperation
    • A secure peace
    • Permanent security
  • “A Declaration by the United Nations” was signed by 26 nations, including China and the Soviet Union
u s ships are attacked
U.S. Ships are Attacked
  • US destroyer Greer: torpedoes were fired at the ship on September 4, 1941
  • The Pink Star—a US merchant ship: sunk two weeks later
  • US destroyer Kearny: torpedoed in mid-October
  • US destroyer Reuban James: sunk in October; killed at least 100 sailors
japan1
Japan
  • Dreamed of a vast colonial empire
  • They’d invaded Manchuria in 1931 and China in 1937
  • Pushed south in July 1941 towards present-day Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos
  • Hideki Tojo became Prime Minister and planned to attack the United States
  • The US intercepted Japan’s secret communication codes and knew an attack was coming
the attack on pearl harbor
The Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • December 7, 1941: 181 Japanese planes bombed Pearl Harbor for an hour and a half
  • The attack crippled the US Pacific Fleet
  • 18 ships were sunk or damaged; 350 planes were destroyed or severely damaged; 2400 people had died; and 1178 were injured
response to pearl harbor
Response to Pearl Harbor
  • Roosevelt said, “December 7, 1941, a date which will live in infamy.”
  • Burton Wheeler, an isolationist senator, said, “The only thing now to do is to lick the hell out of them.”
  • The US declared war on Japan on 12/8
  • Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the US
hitler s plan
Hitler’s Plan
  • To promote the Aryan race
  • In April 1933, he removed all non-Aryans from government jobs
  • Jews had traditionally been the scapegoats for Germans—blamed for any failures or economic problems
  • In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of their civil rights and property and forced Jews to wear a yellow star of David
  • The Laws
kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
  • November 9, 1938—the night of broken glass
  • Jewish homes, businesses, and synagogues throughout Germany were attacked
  • More than 20,000 Jews were arrested and sent to concentration camps
jewish refugees
Jewish Refugees
  • In 1938, Germany’s foreign minister observed: “We all want to get rid of our Jews. The difficulty is that no country wishes to receive them.”
    • 40,000 fled to France
    • England accepted 500 refugees a week
    • 60,000 travelled to the United States which had strict immigration quotas
  • Most people were anti-Semitic and didn’t want the Jews either.
hitler s final solution
Hitler’s Final Solution
  • Since many Jews were unable to flee Germany, Hitler came up with a new plan
  • Healthy Jews would be sent to labor camps to perform slave labor
  • The rest would be sent to extermination camps—this resulted in genocide, the deliberate killing of an entire people
  • The Nazis also included others they felt were inferior or unworthy: gypsies, freemasons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, the mentally retarded, the insane, the disabled, and the incurably ill
  • Eventually, they added the Poles, Ukrainians, and Russians to their list
concentration camps
Concentration Camps
  • Prisoners would work from dawn to dusk, seven days a week, until they collapsed
  • They lived in cramped wooden barracks that held up to 1000 people each
  • Food was meager—mostly a thin soup with an occasional scrap of bread
extermination
Extermination
  • Because the Jews wouldn’t die fast enough in the work camps, the Nazis built six death camps in Poland—the main purpose was to exterminate or kill people
  • Each had gas chambers to kill up to 6000 people daily
  • Bodies were initially buried in huge pits, but crematoriums worked more quickly to dispose of the bodies
  • Others died by being shot, hanged, poisoned, or experimented on
americans get involved
Americans Get Involved
  • The Japanese had assumed Americans would be too afraid to respond to the attack on Pearl Harbor
  • 5 million volunteered to serve, but it wasn’t enough
  • The selective service draft provided another 10 million soldiers
women in the military
Women in the Military
  • General George Marshall pushed for the formation of a Women’s Auxiliary Army corps (WAAC) because of the shortage of male soldiers
  • Over 250,000 women served the United States during WWII
minorities in the armed services
Minorities in the Armed Services
  • Segregated units were the norm
  • Despite the prejudice in their daily lives, many volunteered to fight for the country they felt ignored their struggles
  • Over 1.5 million minorities served in WWII
on the home front
On the Home Front
  • Auto production shut down to switch to tanks, planes, boats, and command cars
  • All industries mobilized for the war effort
  • Women and minorities had opportunities never before available
roosevelt creates the osrd
Roosevelt Creates the OSRD
  • The Office of Scientific Research and Development
  • Improved radar and sonar
  • Encouraged the use of DDT to keep the soldiers bug and lice free
  • Pushed the development of miracle drugs like penicillin
  • Secretly developed the atomic bomb
  • Refugee Albert Einstein warned Roosevelt to be careful or the Germans would develop this also
japanese internment camps
Japanese Internment Camps
  • Over 100,000 Japanese Americans were shipped to ten camps, most American born, as a result of Roosevelt’s order on February 19, 1942
  • Panic and prejudice created an atmosphere of hysteria and hostility
internment executive o rder 9066
Internment—Executive Order 9066
  • Included those who were only part Japanese and most were American citizens
  • Camps didn’t always contain cooking or plumbing facilities
  • Were under guard by the US Army
  • The Japanese lost all they owned—their homes, businesses, pictures, furniture—they lost their lives
economic concerns
Economic Concerns
  • Roosevelt didn’t want inflation to skyrocket as it had during WWI
  • The OPA (Office of Price Administration) froze the prices of most goods and raised income tax
  • The WPB (War Production Board) collected goods to recycle for the war effort
  • Everyone could only have a certain amount of items—through rationing
  • Included meat, shoes, sugar, coffee, and gasoline
britain and the u s join forces
Britain and the U.S. Join Forces

Winston Churchill (Prime Minister of England) visited the US in late December 1941 to plan out their war policy

  • Decisions:
    • The main priority was to defeat Germany
    • They agreed to only accept the unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers
battle of the atlantic
Battle of the Atlantic

German U-boats were able to sink 681 Allied ships throughout the Atlantic in the first half of 1942

The Allies responded by organizing convoys guarded by destroyers and were able to have success

The US also increased its ship production

the battle of stalingrad
The Battle of Stalingrad

The Germans had stalled their attempts to invade the Soviet Union, but began again in search of oil

The Luftwaffe ran nightly bombing raids on the city

For over six months, the German and Soviet soldiers fought brutally in freezing conditions

Over 225,000 Germans died and the Soviets lost 1,250,000 soldiers and civilians

meanwhile in north africa
Meanwhile in North Africa…

Even though Stalin wanted the Allies to divert German troops in Western Europe, they turned towards Africa

General Dwight D. Eisenhower commanded Operation Torch beginning in November 1942

They were able to defeat the German troops led by Erwin Rommel—the Desert Fox by May 1943

the soft underbelly of the axis
“The Soft Underbelly of the Axis”

With success in Africa, the Allied troops invaded Italy in the summer of 1943

Italian people and their king were tired of fighting and prepared to end their involvement in the war—King Victor Emmanuel III stripped Mussolini of his power

Hitler wouldn’t have this though and sent troops to protect Italy and reinstated Mussolini

One battle lasted four months—Bloody Anzio

In April 1945, members of Italy’s underground were finally able to help defeat the Germans and hanged Il Duce in a Milan square

d day
D-Day

The Allies had planned to attack Hitler’s forces in France for two years

Began by bombing northern France’s supply routes for a month and a half

On June 6, 1944, troops landed at beaches along the English Channel

German troops fought brutally, especially at Omaha Beach

slide54

“People were yelling, screaming, dying, running on the beach, equipment was flying everywhere, men were bleeding to death, crawling, lying everywhere, firing coming from all directions.” ~Felix Branham

Despite heavy casualties, Americans held the beaches and were able to advance to Paris, under the direction of General George Patton, and liberate the city after four years.

as a result
As a result…

Roosevelt and his running mate Harry S. Truman were elected to an unprecedented fourth term in November 1944

battle of the bulge
Battle of the Bulge

Despite warnings from intelligence reports, the Allies were surprised by a German attack in Winter 1944

The battle lasted a month and the positions were mostly unchanged after

The Germans had lost men and supplies they could not replace at this time—and that was worse than losing the battle

liberation of the death camps
Liberation of the Death Camps
  • The Soviets were the first to liberate a death camp—Majdanek in Poland
    • Contained the world’s largest crematorium
    • A storehouse contained 800,000 shoes
  • Liberating soldiers were amazed at what they saw and assumed the starving adults were merely children
v e day may 8 1945
V-E day—May 8, 1945

As the end drew near, Hitler married his longtime companion, Eva Braun, and both committed suicide

Without Hitler, the Third Reich gave their unconditional surrender to Eisenhower

after pearl harbor
After Pearl Harbor
  • U.S. submarines had been spared
  • Our aircraft carriers were at sea during the attacks and were also spared
  • Almost all of the sunk or damaged ships were repaired and returned to service
japan advances
Japan Advances
  • Japan created an empire, conquering Hong Kong, French Indochina, Malaya, Burma, Thailand, half of China, Formosa, the Dutch East Indies, Guam, Wake, the Solomon Islands, and part of Alaska
  • General Douglas MacArthur helped defend the Philippines for America, but eventually had to abandon it in March 1942
  • Japanese Emperor Hirohito was thrilled with his victory
u s retaliation
U.S. Retaliation
  • On April 18, 1942, Col. James Doolittle led an attack on Japan
  • In the Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942), U.S. and Australian fleets defended against the Japanese
  • In the Battle of Midway (June 1942), Adm. Charles Nimitz fought the Japanese
  • He was outnumbered four ships to one—and devastated the Japanese forces
navajo code talkers
Navajo Code Talkers
  • The U.S. was able to intercept several Japanese codes
  • The Japanese heard a language in their headsets, but couldn’t identify it
  • The language was Navajo which has no alphabet or written symbols and therefore was ideal
  • They weren’t recognized until 1969
island hopping
Island Hopping
  • The Japanese were established on hundreds of islands throughout the Pacific
  • MacArthur skipped strongholds and seized less-fortified islands and set-up areas to attack from
  • In Guadalcanal, Americans had their first land victory against the Japanese after a 6-month battle from August 1942 to February 1943
  • This cost the U.S. 1/3 of our Marines
japanese kamikaze
Japanese Kamikaze
  • The word kamikaze means “divine wind” and refers to a typhoon that saved Japan from a Mongol invasion in 1281
  • In WWII, kamikaze were suicide-plane attacks in which Japanese pilots crashed their bomb-laden planes into Allied ships
  • Kamikaze pilots flew over 3800 missions, but the Japanese still failed
in the midst of the pacific war
In the Midst of the Pacific War
  • President Roosevelt had a stroke and died on April 12, 1945
  • Harry Truman became President, but was nervous about his new position as president and commander-in-chief
iwo jima
Iwo Jima
  • A desolate island—seen as a critical base for future attacks on Japan
  • Operation Detachment was a 35-day battle beginning in February 1945 in which 6000 Marines were killed
  • Only 200 of the 20,700 Japanese survived
  • Joe Rosenthal’s picture became one of the main images of the war
the battle for okinawa
The Battle for Okinawa
  • This small island was Japan’s last defensive outpost
  • Battle began in April 1945
  • After the fierce battle, more than 7600 Americans had died and 110,000 Japanese died defending Okinawa
  • The two Japanese general chose suicide over the shame of surrender—a Japanese ritual
the atomic bomb
The Atomic Bomb
  • The development of the bomb was known as the Manhattan Project and was lead by Robert Oppenheimer
  • First tested in the New Mexico desert on July 16, 1945—known as the Trinity Test
hiroshima
Hiroshima
  • August 6, 1945
  • The Enola Gay drops a uranium bomb named Little Boy
  • People died instantly, clothes were burned onto bodies, and an overwhelming sense of heat was felt
  • Less than 10% of the city’s buildings survived
nagasaki
Nagasaki
  • August 9, 1945
  • Bock’s drops the plutonium bomb named Fat Man; was 40% stronger than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima
  • Remembering Nagasaki
japan surrenders
Japan Surrenders
  • Japan surrenders on August 14, 1945
  • August 15th: V-J Day—peace finally arrives
rebuilding begins
Rebuilding Begins
  • Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill had met in the Soviet Union in February 1945 at the Yalta Conference
  • They agreed to form the United Nations
  • The UN was established in April 1945 at a meeting in San Francisco
    • Formed an 11 member Security Council
    • The U.S., Great Britain, the Soviet Union, France, and China were given permanent seats
germany is divided
Germany is Divided
  • Stalin, Truman, and Churchill met in Germany in July 1945
  • They decided to disarm Germany by dividing it into zones and punish those guilty of war crimes
the nuremberg war trials
The Nuremberg War Trials
  • An international tribunal tried Nazi war criminals in November 1945
    • Represented 23 nations
    • In Nuremberg, Germany
  • 12 were sentenced to death
  • Nearly 200 were found guilty of war crimes
  • This was the first time a nation’s leaders were held accountable for what happened during wartime
the occupation of japan
The Occupation of Japan
  • General Douglas MacArthur occupied Japan for 6 years
  • Over 1000 were arrested and put on trial; 7 were sentenced to death
  • The American-directed occupation government provided aid and began to rebuild the bombed cities