austria prussia and russia n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Austria, Prussia and Russia PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Austria, Prussia and Russia

Loading in 2 Seconds...

  share
play fullscreen
1 / 26
Download Presentation

Austria, Prussia and Russia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

yasir-hill
66 Views
Download Presentation

Austria, Prussia and Russia

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Austria, Prussia and Russia

  2. Austria And the Habsburgs

  3. Habsburgs • Habsburgs look to east for more power • Bohemia • 30 years War, Phase 1 • Absolute control • New nobility made up of Catholics loyal to Habsburg rule • Peasant life miserable • Turn towards Hungary

  4. Ottomans • Muslim rulers from the south • Tolerant of other religions • Millet • smaller areas under local control • paid tax straight to the Sultan • Janissaries • Christian boys taken as slaves and trained to be soldiers and officials for Sultan

  5. Habsburgs v. Ottomans • 1527 Suleiman almost takes Vienna • 1683 Ottomans attack Vienna again • Habsburgs and coalition hold off • Counter attack as Ottomans retreat • 1687 Battle of Zenta • major defeat for Ottomans 30,000 dead v. 500 • 1689 Peace of Karlowitz • Habsburgs get Hungary

  6. Habsburgs and Hungary • 1713 Pragmatic Sanction • Single Habsburg ruler would always control Austria, Bohemia and Hungary • Hungarian nobility used to independence and tolerance of past Ottoman rule • Resist Habsburg absolutism • Nationalist Pride • Have ally in Turkey • Compromise…Habsburg rule but still independent in respects

  7. Prussia And the Hohenzollern

  8. Frederick WilliamThe Great Elector • R. 1640 - 1688 • Elector of Brandenburg • Gains title over Prussia • Traditionally powerless • Uses political wit and force to unite areas • Junkers • nobility and landowning class of Prussia • Creates standing army of 30,000

  9. Elector Fred III (King Frederick I) • Useless • More worried about palace than people • Treaty of Utrecht • Gains title from HRE for helping in War of Spanish Succession • Officially becomes King of Prussia

  10. King Frederick William I(r. 1713 - 1740) • Military Freak • Models Prussian society after the military • Felt Prussia needed to be respected militarily to get a say in world politics • Standing army 83,000

  11. Frederick II “The Great”(1740 - 1786) • “First servant of the state.” • Enlightened Despot • Religious tolerance • 1772 First Partition of Poland • splits Poland with Russia • unifies Brandenburg and Prussia

  12. Russia And the Romanovs

  13. Russia did not develop at the same pace or time as the rest of Europe. Why? • Russia looked to the Greek Orthodox Church at Constantinople, not Rome • Mongol invasions from 1240-1580 • Asiatic invaders • Ivan III through out the Mongols in 1580 • Russian Geography • No ice free ports

  14. Russia’s non-Europeness • Women were secluded, wore veils • Men bearded, skirted garments • Churchmen feared western influence • “Abhorred of God is anyone who loves geometry; it is a spiritual sin” Quote from a Russian Bishop

  15. Ivan IV 1533-1584 “Terrible” • First to assume the Title of Tsar

  16. Time of troubles 1604-1613 • Russian nobles elected series of Tsars and demanded certain assurances of their own liberties • Came to an end with the election of the young Michael Romanov 1613

  17. Serfdom • Life worsened • Punishment for killing Serf • 1675 allowed serf to be sold off the land • Steven Razin 1667 led Serf revolt- executed in 1671

  18. Russian Orthodox Church Crisis • Russians looked to Patriarch in Constantinople • Constantinople conquered by Muslim Turks • Russia set up independent Patriarch in 1589 • After 1700 no new Patriarch was appointed • Procurator of the Holy Synod • Government Official

  19. Peter the Great 1682-1725 • Westernizer • As a young man Peter spent a year in western Europe • 1697-1698 recruited 1000 technical experts • Don’t copy, compete

  20. Streltsi Rebellion 1698 • Form of Feudal rebellion • Streltsi were the Royal guard, tried to overthrow Peter while he was away in the west • Rebellion stopped • Peter killed 5 rebels with his own hands

  21. Windows on the west • Peter sought ice free ports on the Baltic or Black sea • Brought Russia into conflict with Sweden • Great Northern War 1709-1721 • Charles XII king of Sweden • Narva 1700 Russ. 40k; Swed 8K Swed win • Peter learns lesson;westernize or die • Poltava 1709; Russia wins • 1721 treaty of Nystadt; Russia gets windows on the West

  22. Peter modernized government • Administration- gubernii • Broke Russia into 10 administrative territories

  23. Peter against all old • Required all gentry to put sons in school • Simplified russian alphabet • Prepared Russian book of etiquette • Made men shave beards (barber king) • When Peter’s son threatened to return to old ways (Slavophile) Peter ended up having him executed

  24. Conclusion • It is not simply that he Europeanized Russia and conquered a place on the Baltic-these developments might have occurred in any case. It is the methods he used that set the character of his empire.