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Rise Of Austria and Prussia. Chapter 4 Section 4. The Thirty Years’ War. Voltaire, a French philosopher, said that the Holy Roman Empire was a patchwork of several hundred small, separate states. In theory, these states were under control of the Holy roman Emperor

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rise of austria and prussia

Rise Of Austria and Prussia

Chapter 4 Section 4

the thirty years war
The Thirty Years’ War
  • Voltaire, a French philosopher, said that the Holy Roman Empire was a patchwork of several hundred small, separate states.
  • In theory, these states were under control of the Holy roman Emperor
  • He was chosen by seven German princes called electors.
  • In practice, the emperor had little power over the many rival princes.
  • Religion further divided the German states, and this sparked the Thirty Years’ War.
the war begins
The War Begins
  • War had both religious and political causes.
  • Began in Bohemia, presently the Czech Republic
  • Ferdinand, Hapsburg king of Bohemia, sought to suppress Protestants and assert royal power over local nobles.
  • In May 1618, a few Protestant nobleman tossed two royal officials out of a castle window.
  • This started a general conflict, which turned into a general European War.
the war begins1
The War Begins
  • The following year, Ferdinand was named the Holy Roman Emperor.
  • He tried to roll back the Reformation, with the support of Spain, Poland, and many Catholic States.
  • Early on in the war, he defeated the Bohemians and their Protestant Allies
  • Immediately after, Protestant Powers such as Netherlands and Sweden sent troops to Germany.
  • Political Issues quickly outweighed religious issues, and many rulers shifted their alliances to suit their interests.
  • Eventually, Catholic France joined Lutheran Sweden against the Catholic Hapsburgs.
a brutal conflict
A Brutal Conflict
  • Armies of mercenaries, or soldiers for hire, burned villages, destroyed crops, and killed without mercy.
  • Murder and torture were followed by famine and disease.
  • The war led to depopulation, or reduction of population.
  • Historians estimate that one third of the people in German states died from the war.
peace at last
Peace at Last
  • In 1648, the sides accepted a series of treaties, known as the Peace of Westphalia.
  • France came out as a clear winner. They gained territory on both it German and Spanish Frontiers.
  • The Hapsburgs were the losers because they had to accept the total independence of all the princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
  • Netherlands and Switzerland won recognition as independent states.
peace at last1
Peace At Last
  • Germany ended up divided into 360 separate states.
  • They still acknowledged leadership of the Holy roman emperor.
  • Each state had its own coinage, government, armed forces, state church, and foreign policy.
  • Germany remained fragmented for another 200 years.
hapsburg austria
Hapsburg Austria
  • Weakened by war, Hapsburgs wanted to create a strong united state.
  • Kept title of Holy Roman emperors.
  • Along with Austria, they added Bohemia, Hungary, and parts of Italy and Poland.
unity and diversity
Unity and Diversity
  • Uniting the lands were very difficult.
  • In the Hapsburg Empire, people had their own languages, laws, assemblies, and customs.
  • The Hapsburgs did exert control over these diverse peoples.
  • The Hapsburg Empire never developed a centralized government.
maria theresa
Maria Theresa
  • In 1700s, emperor Charles VI had no son to take his place as ruler.
  • His daughter, Maria Theresa, was capable, but no woman had ever ruled Hapsburg lands.
  • Charles asked many rulers to recognize his daughter’s right to succeed him, but many ignored their pledge.
maria theresa1
Maria Theresa
  • In 1740, Frederick II of Prussia seized control of a Hapsburg province.
  • Maria asked Hungarians for military help, but they were unfriendly with her.
  • She eventually got help from Britain and Russia.
  • Throughout the war, she strengthened Hapsburg power by reorganizing the bureaucracy and improving tax collection.
the rise of prussia
The Rise of Prussia
  • Prussia emerged as a new Protestant power
  • In 1600s, the Hohenzollern family ruled parts of north Germany.
  • They eventually conquered many other states and they set up a central bureaucracy and reduced independence of nobles, called Junkers.
  • Many Prussian rulers formed one of the best trained armies in Europe.
  • They won loyalty of Junkers by giving them positions in government or army.
frederick ii
Frederick II
  • Frederick William trained his son Frederick II in the art of war
  • Frederick II preferred playing the flute and writing poetry.
  • His dad treated him terribly because of this, and Fred JR. tried to flee the country
  • Finding out about this, Frederick William put his son in solitary confinement.
military successes
Military successes
  • Shortly after becoming king, Fred Jr. used his army to seize Silesia from Austria.
  • In many other wars, Fred Jr. brilliantly used his army, forcing all to accept Prussia as a great power.
  • This is how he became Frederick the Great.
keeping the balance of power
Keeping the Balance of Power
  • By 1750, the great powers of Europe were Austria, Russia, Prussia, France, and England.
  • Formed alliances to maintain balance of power
  • Sometimes, rivalries caused worldwide conflict.
  • Mercenary- Soldier for hire, only fights for the highest bidder
  • Depopulation- Loss of population due to war, famine, or disease
  • What country did the Hapsburg’s rule, actually what country and empire? Austria
  • What was the group of Princes called that selected the Holy Roman Emperor? Electors
  • What did the Holy Roman Emperor want to roll back in Europe? Protestant Reformation/Protestant Tide
  • What was the war called the ended with the Peace of Westphalia? 30 years war
  • Who was the first female empress of Austria? Maria Theresa