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569-577 * Create a graphic organizer describing and illustrating the rise of Austria and Prussia during the 17 th and 18th century.

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569-577 * Create a graphic organizer describing and illustrating the rise of Austria and Prussia during the 17th and 18th century.

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Rise of Austria and Prussia: - Despite the strength of the nobility in East Elbia, royal absolutism did grow during the 17th century. - WHY?

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Rise of Austria and Prussia: - Despite the strength of the nobility in East Elbia, royal absolutism did grow during the 17th century. - WHY?- War and the threat of war helped kings increase power- During this atmosphere of “Wartime Emergency” kings began to reduce the power of the nobility in three ways:

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Rise of Austria and Prussia: - Despite the strength of the nobility in East Elbia, royal absolutism did grow during the 17th century. - WHY?- War and the threat of war helped kings increase power- During this atmosphere of “Wartime Emergency” kings began to reduce the power of the nobility in three ways: - They imposed and collected taxes w/out consent.

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Rise of Austria and Prussia: - Despite the strength of the nobility in East Elbia, royal absolutism did grow during the 17th century. - WHY?- War and the threat of war helped kings increase power- During this atmosphere of “Wartime Emergency” kings began to reduce the power of the nobility in three ways: - They imposed and collected taxes w/out consent. - Maintained permanent standing armies.

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Rise of Austria and Prussia: - WHY?- War and the threat of war helped kings increase power- During this atmosphere of “Wartime Emergency” kings began to reduce the power of the nobility in three ways: - They imposed and collected taxes w/out consent. - Maintained permanent standing armies. - Conducted relations with other nations as they pleased.

prussia over austria
PRUSSIA over Austria ?

- However, Absolutism in Eastern Europe did have importantvariations: - The royal absolutism created in Prussia was much STRONGER than that of Austria.

prussia over austria1
PRUSSIA over Austria ?

- However, Absolutism in Eastern Europe did have importantvariations: - The royal absolutism created in Prussia was much STRONGER than that of Austria. - IMPORTANT since this gave a slight edge to Prussia over Austria in terms of political control of Eastern Europe, which allowed Prussia to later UNITE Germany into one state.

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Issues

  • Events
  • Battles
  • Wars
  • Threats
  • Laws
  • Policies
  • Methods
  • OR
groups
Groups:

FRONT

4. Prussia Frederick William

1. Austria Ferdinand II

5. Prussia Frederick William I

(Soldier King)

2. Austria Ferdinand III

3. Austria Charles VI

6. Ottoman Suleiman “The Great”

the austrian habsburgs
The Austrian Habsburgs

Ferdinand II

Ferdinand III

Charles VI (r. 1711-1740)

austria habsburgs
Austria: Habsburgs
  • After the Thirty Years War Austria was exhausted!
    • Although the Habsburgs remained hereditary

rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, in reality they

held little power over the 300 or so kingdoms

that now existed.

    • They were forced to unify their diverse holdings into a united state.
      • Habsburg King Ferdinand II made headway when in 1620 he crushed an uprising by the Bohemian Estates (Protestant) at the Battle of the White Mountain in the Czech region.
      • Ferdinand also gave confiscated Protestant lands in Bohemia to Catholic nobles.
austria habsburgs1
Austria: Habsburgs
  • After the Thirty Years War Austria was exhausted!
    • They were forced to unify their diverse holdings into a united state.
      • Battle of the White Mountain
      • Ferdinand also gave confiscated Protestant lands in Bohemia to Catholic nobles.
      • These nobles helped Austria take direct control over Bohemia.
      • HOWEVER, peasants continued to suffer:
        • The “robot” (forced labor 3 days a week) became the norm for peasants, and about 25% worked every day for the lords (except holidays).
austria habsburgs2
Austria: Habsburgs
  • After the Thirty Years War Austria was exhausted!
    • They were forced to unify their diverse holdings:
      • Ferdinand III (r.1637-57)
        • Centralized control over Austria, Styria and Tyrol using a permanent army to secure the CORE of the state.
        • The Ottoman threat
          • Ottoman’s settled in Anatolia (Turkey) in the 1500’s and under Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66) established the most powerful empire in the world.
          • As followers of Islam they were a threat to Catholic Austria.
austria habsburgs3
Austria: Habsburgs
  • The Ottoman threat
      • Ottoman’s settled in Anatolia (Turkey) in the 1500’s and under Sultan Suleiman,
      • As followers of Islam they were a threat to Catholic Austria.
      • In 1683 Turkish army laid siege to Vienna.
        • Were forced to retreat by a combined force of Habsburg, Saxon, Bavarianand Polish troops.
        • Russian and Venetian forces chased Turks further eastward.
        • Austria then was able to takeover Hungary and Transylvania.
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569-577 (Day 2) * Create a graphic organizer describing and illustrating the rise of Austria and Prussia during the 17th and 18th century.

austria habsburgs4
Austria: Habsburgs
  • The Ottoman threat
      • This also allowed Austria to develop a strong, professional and permanent standing army.
  • By1699, the Habsburg state was composed of three regions:
    • The “old” hereditary provinces of Austria
    • Kingdom of Bohemia (Czech)
    • Hungary
  • However, each region continued to have its own separate laws and political “estates” to rule locally but under the authority of the Habsburg king.
austria habsburgs5
Austria: Habsburgs
  • King Charles VI (r.1711-40)
    • The Habsburgs were concerned about the fragility of their “empire”.
    • So, in 1713, Charles VI proclaimed the “Pragmatic Sanction” which stated that Habsburg lands MUST never be divided and MUST be passed to a single heir (EVEN if it was a queen!).
    • Why was Charles so concerned?
      • In Hungary, the nobility never fully accepted Habsburg rule. (made up 5-7% of population).
      • Much of the Hungarian population remained Protestant and resisted being “re-Catholicized”.
      • Also, the Ottoman Turks had been tolerant.
austria habsburgs6
Austria: Habsburgs
  • King Charles VI (r.1711-40)
    • Why was Charles so concerned?
      • In Hungary, the nobility never fully accepted Habsburg rule. (made up 5-7% of population).
      • Much of the Hungarian population remained Protestant and resisted being “re-Catholicized”.
      • Also, the Ottoman Turks had been tolerant.
        • So, while the Habsburgs were fighting in the “War of Spanish-Succession”, Hungarians rose up under leadership of Prince Rakoczy in 1703!
        • Charles VI eventually put down the uprising, however, Hungary NEVER fully under control
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Frederick William I

“Soldier King” 1713-1740

Ottoman Suleiman

“The Magnificent”

Frederick William

“The Great Elector” 1640-1688

prussia hohenzollerns
Prussia: Hohenzollerns
  • Why was it unexpected that Prussia would ever rise to political importance?
    • Hohenzollerns land holdings were divided geographically (see map p.574) between Brandenburg (one of the electors of the H.R.E.) and Prussia.
    • Also, the Thirty Years War had devastated their lands, population and weakened the Estates.
    • Opportunity
      • This allowed Frederick William (r.1640-88) the “Great Elector” to unite the three areas of Brandenburg, Prussia and the scattered holdings in Western Germany.
prussia hohenzollerns1
Prussia: Hohenzollerns
  • Frederick William (r.1640-88) the “Great Elector”
    • Problem was that each kingdom still had its own Estates dominated by “junkers” (nobility and land- owning classes).
    • How is Frederick William able to take control?
      • He forces the Estates to accept taxation without consent by creating a permanent “state of emergency” by always being at war.
      • Junkers refused to join with the commoners to oppose Frederick William’s agenda.
prussia hohenzollerns2
Prussia: Hohenzollerns
  • How does Prussian Absolutism finally come together?
    • Frederick William’s successor Frederick III “the Ostentatious” or King Frederick I (r. 1688-1713) was a weak ruler.
    • Frederick William I “the Solders’ King” (r.1713-40) reversed this by creating a powerful militaristic state:
      • Tried to recruit the tallest soldiers he could find due to their physical strength as “Grenadiers”.
      • Dedicated to the military style of life.
      • Held philosophy of politics in Europe as being “dog eat dog” mentality.
prussia hohenzollerns3
Prussia: Hohenzollerns
  • How does Prussian Absolutism finally come together?
    • Frederick William I “the Solders’ King” (r.1713-40) Tried to recruit the tallest soldiers he could find due to their physical strength as “Grenadiers”.
      • Dedicated to the military style of life.
      • Held philosophy of politics in Europe as being “dog eat dog” mentality.
      • Enlisted help of Junkers by making them into officers in his military.
      • Increased size of Prussian army from 38,000 to 83,000 troops!
      • Built an honest and efficient bureaucracy
    • Became known as the “Sparta of the North”
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Frederick William I

“Soldier King” 1713-1740

Ottoman Suleiman

“The Magnificent”

Frederick William

“The Great Elector” 1640-1688

ottoman turks suleiman
Ottoman Turks: Suleiman
  • Ottoman Turks challenged Austria for control of Hungary.
  • Background
    • From Central Asia they moved into Anatolia (Turkey) during the rule of Sultan Suleiman “the Magnificent” (r. 1520-66).
    • Established one of the great military empires from Persia to North Africa to Eastern Europe.
    • Followers of Islam, Turks were foes of the Catholic Habsburgs of Austria.
slide29

Threat to

AUSTRIA!

ottoman turks suleiman1
Ottoman Turks: Suleiman
  • Political Organization
    • No private property ownership as all land belonged to the sultan, there was no nobility.
    • Sultan’s bureaucracy was staffed by a slave corps created from a special tax collected from the Christian populations of the Balkans.
      • Tax was 1000-3000 children to be raised as Muslims and trained to either be administrators or soldiers.
      • Soldiers were to be part of the Sultan’s elite “Janissary Corps”.
ottoman turks suleiman2
Ottoman Turks: Suleiman
  • Political Organization
    • Ottomans were tolerant of other religions:
      • Divided their subjects into like religious communities called “millets”.
      • Each millet enjoyed full autonomous self- government as long as they paid tribute (tax).
  • After the death of Suleiman in 1566, the empire began to weaken due poor leadership.
  • However, they made one last attempt at taking over Hungary in 1683 by surrounding Vienna.
    • But after two months, a combined force of Habsburgs, Saxon, Bavarian and Polish troops forced them to retreat!.
slide32

Threat to

AUSTRIA!