The Rise of Austria and Prussia Two German-speaking powers that perfected the skills of being ABSOLUTE MONARCHS
The Hohenzollerns and Hapsburgs (Austrian Branch) • These two families rose to be absolute monarchs out of the ashes of THE THIRTY YEARS WAR.
TRIVIA QUESTION!! • How long did the Thirty Year War last??? • 1618 – 1648 • 30 Years!
The Costs of the 30 Year War • The population of the German states went down 30% • 50% of males died. • Disease, famine and expulsion reduced the population another 30%
What could they be fighting over for 30 years and creating such destruction? • Religion
The war started with the Holy Roman Empire • “The Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire.” • Voltaire
The Holy Roman Empire • A patchwork quilt of small countries with different languages, customs, and geography. • Ruled by princes and kings that were supposed to be loyal to the Holy Roman Emperor. • Seven “electors” would choose the Emperor. • Ruled for life. • Not much power over the small countries.
Under the Treaty of Trent – all of these lands had the princes choose the religion of the country • The Catholic Hapsburgs in Spain and later Austria pretty much left things alone. • “pretty much” is the key term here!
Religious Tolerance • Ferdinand I (Austrian Hapsburg) even allowed communion to be done in both the Protestant and Catholic way.
Religious Tolerance is thrown out the window – literally! • Ferdinand II took over after his cousin Holy Roman Emperor Matthias died childless. • Had been raised by Jesuits. • Sought religious conformity throughout his empire.
1618: Defenestration of Prague • Ferdinand sent Catholic nobles into the mostly Protestant city of Prague (now Czech Republic) to say they all had to turn Catholic now.
16 18: The Defenestration of Prague • The Protestants responded by tossing Ferdinand II’s nobles out the window. • Literally! • BTW: Defenestration means “throwing out the window.” • “out the window” comes from this act.
A hundred hands dragged them towards the high window, flung back the casement and hoisted them upwards. Martinitz went first. “Jesu Maria! Help!” he screamed and crashed over the sill. Slavata fought longer, calling on the Blessed Virgin and clawing at the window frame under a rain of blows until someone knocked him senseless and the bleeding hands relaxed. Their shivering secretary clung to Schlick for protection; out of sheer intoxication the crowd hoisted him up and sent him to join his masters.
One of the rebels lent over the ledge leering; “We will see if your Mary can help you!” A second later between exasperation and amazement, “By God, his Mary has helped,” he exclaimed, for Martinitz was already stirring. Suddenly a ladder protruded from a neighbouring window; Martinitz and the secretary made off under a hail of misdirected missiles. Some of Slavata’s servants, braving the mob, went down to his help and carried him after the others, unconscious but alive.
A pile of manure, piled by chance at the bottom of the wall by gardeners, broke their fall. Many Catholics later claimed they were born down gently by angels.
Consequences of the Defenestration • Massive death and destruction for 30 years. • Both sides sought allies to help them.
Thirty Year War • A local conflict ended up being a massive war dragging in every European power. • Mercenary Armies invaded.
The Thirty Year War • Spain sent troops. • Support the Catholics. • Denmark sent troops. • Support the Protestants. • Sweden sent troops. • Protestant Support. • France sent troops. • Catholic Support • England sent troops. • Protestant Support
ALL the countries that participated in the 30 Year War • SwedenBohemiaDenmark-NorwayDutch RepublicFranceSaxonyElectoral PalatinateEnglandTransylvaniaHungarian anti-Habsburg rebels • Holy Roman EmpireCatholic League • Austria • Bavaria • Kingdom of Hungary • Croatia • Spanish Empire
Destruction from the Swedish Army in 1629. • 2000 castles • 18,000 villages • 1,500 towns • 1/3 of all Germany.
This is the war that drained so many kingdoms we’ve studied about! • France • Spain
FINALLY: Peace in 1648 • Peace of Westphalia. • But, who won?
Who Won the 30 Year War? • France! • Gained territory on its Spanish and German frontiers.
Who lost the Thirty Year War? • The Hapsburgs! • ALMOST total independence of the Holy Roman Empire from their control. • Acknowledged the Holy Roman Emperor – but he had no control over them. • Total independence for the Netherlands (Holland) and the Swiss Federation (Switzerland).
Hapsburg Austria changes its focus! • Finding a way to rule so many different lands, languages, cultures, and religions.
Hapsburg Rule • Would send in German-speaking officials and settled Austrians on the lands of other people. • BUT never developed the centralized system like France!
Problems for the Hapsburgs • 1739: There is no son to take over the throne! • Charles VI had no living son.
ONLY a daughter: Maria Theresa • But would the nobles accept a woman ruler? • A woman being Holy Roman Emperor? • Charles VI spent the rest of his life getting his nobles to agree to his daughter being next. • The PRAGMATIC SOLUTION (1713)
1740: Maria Theresa becomes Empress • Some nobles forget their promise to her father and go to war. • Austrian War of Succession (1740 – 1748) • Men who preferred SALIC LAW. • Only men could inherit.
Empress Maria Theresa • But what would you do to rule in a world that most think it is a “man’s only” role?
Empress Maria Theresa • Married and made her husband an emperor. • But she was DE FACTO ruler. • The ruler in fact. • The “real” power.
Empress Maria Theresa Made sure to have the “heir” and the “spare” for succession. 16 children! 11 girls 5 boys
Empress Maria Theresa • Rebuild a military. • Didn’t really win any battles. • Started some education reforms. • Education for boys and some girls. • Centralized government. • Reformed tax codes. • Nobles and the church paid as well as the commoners. • Expelled Jews from some of her lands.
Empress Maria Theresa • Even outlawed the death penalty! • Urged doctors to learn how to make childbirth safer for women. • Was interested in inoculations for smallpox. • Decency Police patrolled the streets of Vienna – her capitol.
Empress Maria Theresa • Died 1780 (aged 63). • Son Joseph II took over. • Her youngest daughter became Queen Marie Antoinette in France.
TRIVIA: The full title of Empress Maria Theresa • Maria Theresa, by the Grace of God, Dowager Holy Roman Empress; Queen of Hungary, of Bohemia, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, of Slavonia, of Galicia, of Lodomeria, etc; Archduchess of Austria; Duchess of Burgundy, of Styria, of Carinthia and of Carniola; Grand Princess of Transylvania;
Empress Maria Theresa’s full title (cont.) • Margravine of Moravia; Duchess of Brabant, of Limburg, of Luxemburg, of Guelders, of Württemberg, of Upper and Lower Silesia, of Milan, of Mantua, of Parma, of Piacenza, of Guastalla, of Auschwitz and of Zator; Princess of Swabia;
Maria Theresa’s full title (cont.) • Princely Countess of Habsburg, of Flanders, of Tyrol, of Hennegau, of Kyburg, of Gorizia and of Gradisca; Margravine of Burgau, of Upper and Lower Lusatia; Countess of Namur; Lady on the Wendish Mark and of Mechlin; Dowager Duchess of Lorraine and Bar, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany
Hohenzollern Prussia • Hapsburgs created a Catholic power. • The Hohenzollerns in Prussia created a new Protestant power.
Prussia • “Prussia is not a state that possesses an army. • It is an army that possesses a state.”
Frederick William I • 1713: Using Louis XIV’s model he set to make the JUNKERS be completely under his control. • German Nobles = JUNKERS (yoon-kerz)
Frederick William’s Absolutism • Would go into temper tantrums and strike men in the face with his cane. • Kick women in the street. • It was his divine right to do such things!
Frederick William’s wife Sophia Dorothea of Hanover The daughter of King George I of England. Had manners where her husband didn’t!
Their Son: Frederick • His father wanted him to be a soldier-king. • Raised him as “plain folk” without the royal surroundings. • It was a “rough” upbringing.
Instructions on raising his son: • “His tutor must take the greatest pains to imbue my son with a sincere love for the soldier’s profession and to impress upon him that nothing else in the world can confer upon a prince such fame and honor as the sword.”
Young Frederick had other ideas • Preferred writing poetry and music – particularly playing the flute. • Felt that he had to escape his father. • With a friend tried to run away to England to be with his grandfather.
The runaways were captured • Frederick William I’s WRATH against his son: • Ordered his son be removed from the succession. • Ordered Frederick to watch while his friend was beheaded.