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I. War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 (Prussia v/s Austria) A.Frederick II or Frederick the Great (Prussia)inherits the throne. Early, his father doubled the size of the army and militarized Prussia society.

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I. War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 (Prussia v/s Austria)

A.Frederick II orFrederick the Great (Prussia)inherits the throne.Early, his father doubled the size of the army and militarized Prussia society.

1.He seized the Austrian province of Silesia(a farmland area that was rich in minerals).

2.Allies-France and Spain


B.Maria Theresa(Austria)inherits the throne.

1.Allies- Great Britain and Russia

C.The war lasted 8 years.All parties were exhausted and agreed to stop fighting. Prussia kept Silesia.


II.Seven Years War 1756-1763-( First Global War)

A.Originated with the struggle between Prussia and Austria.It included all of Europe’s major powers.

1. G.B. supports Prussia.

2.Austria forms an alliance with France.

B.Three major areas of conflict-Europe, India, and North America.In North America it was called the French- Indian war.


III. British Taxation Policy

Seven Year War had left Great Britain deeply in debt.Britain felt justified in requiring the colonists to help pay for their defenses.One way the British tried to gain more control over the colonies was through taxation.

*The colonists saw these new taxes as an unjust restrictions of their liberties .


A.Stamp Act-required colonists to pay a tax in the form of a special stamp on many paper goods(wills, newspapers, playing cards, and mortgages).

B.Tea Act-it’s purpose was to save the East India Co. from bankruptcy by re- moving all duties on tea shipped to the colonies.Made the price of British tea much more lower than colonial tea.


1.Samuel Adams principal organizer of the Boston Tea Party.He led a group of men dressed as Indians onto the ship and dumped 343 chests of tea into the ocean.


B. Response to the Tea Act

1. British closed the the port of Boston.

2. British forced the colonists to house and feed British troops.

3. Public meetings were forbidden.

4. 1775- Boston Massacre- British troops began to feel threatened the colonists.They(British) tried to seize colonial guns and gunpowder.


IV. American Revolution

In 1774 the Patriots(1/3 of the colonists) met in Philadelphia(First Continental Congress) demanding to be granted full rights of British citizens.

A. Ju1y 4,1776-Second Continental Congress

1.Adopt the Declaration of Independence.

2.Thomas Jefferson principal author.In the first draft Jefferson denounced slavery.Later it was removed.


Facts About the Revolutionary War

1.The British had a superior military force. Their fleet was the strongest in the world.

2.War against the colonists was not popular in Great Britain.

3.Britain had no allies.King George had to hire German soldiers called Hessians.


4.At first the American forces were poorly trained volunteers.Their lack of unity helped the British.

5.Most of the fighting took place between 1776-1781.

6.France agreed to an alliance with the colonists to weaken the British Empire.

7. 1781-Americans and the French trapped and defeated the British at Yorktown, Virginia.Peace negotiations lasted 2 years.


8.Ben Franklin was the U.S. chief negotiator.

9. 1783 Treaty of Paris was signed.


V.Old Regime(outdated social system)

A.First Estate-clergy

1.Paid no direct taxes to the state.

2.Owned 10% of the land.

B.Second Estate- (rich nobles)

1. They owned 20% of the land in France and paid almost no taxes.

C.Third Estate-98% of population


1.Bourgeoisie(middle class)it included bankers, lawyers, doctors, merchants, and professors.They paid high taxes.

2.City workers-poorest members

3. Peasants -

a.largest group(80%)

b. They paid almost 1/2 of their income to nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the King.


a.The Third Estate resented the privi- leges enjoyed by the First and Second Estates.

b. Peasants were burdened by taxes on everything from land to salt to soap.

c.Nobles only had the right to hunt game. Peasants were even forbidden to kill rabbits that ate their crops.


VI. Financial Crisis

A.deficit spending-government spends more than it takes in. Louis XVI borrowed heavily to help the fight wars.

1.War of Austrian Succession

2.Seven Years War

3.American Revolution

4.To solve the problem the govern- ment would have to increase taxes, reduce expenses, or both. King Louis’s XVI advisor Jacques Necker proposed


taxing the First and Second Estates. The nobles and the clergy forced the king to dismiss the would-be-reformer.

C. Eventually the wealthy and powerful classes demanded the king to call theEstate General(an assembly of repre- sentatives from all 3 Estates.

D. Bad food harvest(added to the problem)-sent food prices soaring.


VII. Estate General meets at Versailles King Louis XVI asked all 3 Estates to prepare notebooks listing all their grievances.

*Third Estate insists on reform.

*Some call for fairer taxes and freedom of the press.

* Peasants demanded the right to kill animals.

A.Estate General was deadlocked the issue of voting. Each state met


separately and voted as a group.It allowed the First and the Second Estates to outvote the Third Estate.The 2 privileged Estates could always outvote the Third Estate.

B.The Third Estate asks other mem- bers to help them shape a new con- stitution.They transform themselves into the National Assembly.A few days later they (Third Assembly) finds themselves locked out at it’s meeting place.


C. The National Assembly takes the Tennis Court Oath- they vowed not to disband until they had drawn up a new constitution.King Louis XVI accepted it after some members of the clergy and nobles joined with the National Assembly.


VIII. Storming of the Bastille (medieval fortress in Paris)- Royal troops began to gather around Versailles. Rumors held that the king would dissolve the Assembly.

A. The Parisians wanted the weapons to assist the National Assembly who were in Versailles.They demanded weapons and gunpowder believed to be stored there.The commander at Bastille refused to open the gate and fires on the crowd.


IX. Women march to Versailles they were driven by hungar(much of the anger was directed at the Queen-Marie Antoinette.The press wrote that she had answered the cries of the hungry people by saying “Let them eat cake.”)

A.They demand that the king and his family return to Paris.

1.Louis remained there for 3 years.


Declaration of the Rights of Man-statement of revolutionary ideals.It reflected the ideals of the Enlightenment.


X.Constitution of 1791

A.Set up a limited monarchy.It stripped the king of much of his powers.

1.Divided the monarchy into 3 branches.

a. Executive King could no longer make laws.

b. Legislative Assembly-it had the powers to make laws, collect taxes,and decide on issues of war and peace.


*Results of the new government

1.Lasted a less than a year.

2.Economic problems -led to it’ fall

XI. Louis XVI tries to escape(He secretly plotted to overthrow the government and restore the old regime.Before he left Paris, he had written a letter to his enemies complaining about the new constitution


calling for a new constitution.

A.Despite his disguise he was still re- cognized.He and his family were arrested and sent back to Paris.


XII. France Goes to War

A.Legislative Assembly votes for war against Austria and Prussia(the French did not do well in the initial fighting).

1.Radicals hoped to spread their revolution throughout Europe.

2.European leaders believed they were helping the king to regain his position as an absolute monarch.


B.Prussia promised to destroy Paris and punishment the revolutionaries if any harm came to the royal family.

C.Louis favored war because he hoped that the foreign armies would defeat the French and restore him to power.


1. Louis is accused of plotting with foreign powers.

2.Armed Parisians march on Tuileries Palace,the home to the of the royal family.They killed the armed guards and imprisoned King Louis XVI and his family.

3.The Legislative votes itself out of existence and sets a date for the elec- tion of delegates to a National Convention.


4.The New Convention/Republic the first act was to declare the end to the monarchy.

A. King Louis XVI is brought to trial. (tried for treason).Later he is sent to the guillotine.

b.The guillotine was used to carry out the sentences.All classes were now executed equally.


* The total weight of the guillotine is about 1278 lb.The height is 14 feet.

*The guillotine blade weight with weight is over 88.2 lb.

*The guillotine blade drop is about 88 inches.

*The falling blade rate of speed is about 21feet/second.

* The actual beheading takes 2/100 of a second.


A.Established to direct the army in crushing foreign invaders.

1.Robespierre-leader(CPS) He decided who was an enemy of the Republic.

B. A special court is established to try enemies of the revolution.It is directed against anyone suspected of disloyalty.

1.People were usually tried in the morning and guillotined the same afternoon.


3.Every person in the city of Lyons(1,080) were executed.

5.A tavern keeper sold sour wine to defenders of the country.

6. 3,000 people in Paris were executed in Paris 40,000 all together.


B.End of Terror-Death sentences to leaders. Robespierre felt his leader- ship was challenged. The only crime they committed was that they were not radical enough.


*Public opinion shifts to the right.A new plan of government is drafted called the Directory.


A.Executive body(Directory) made up of made up of 5 men and a 2 house legislature.

1.The Directors were weak and corrupt and quarreled among themselves.

2.Governed France for 4 years.

3.Called for universal manhood suffrage.


B. 1799- the Legislature did away with the 4/5 Directors. Armed troops surrounded the legislature and forced members to leave. Those who stayed turned the government over to the Napolean.



1. He became a general at the age of 26.

2.His success was due to his ability to move troops rapidly to the most critical points on the battlefield.

3. He defeated the Sardinians in Italy and the Prussians 4 times.

4.He proposed to attack the British in Egypt.The Directory agreed because it would keep him out of Paris.The campaign ended in disaster.He hid the truth and exaggerated his victories.


XIV. Napolean’s Accomplishments during Peacetime

A.He set up government run public schools called Lycees. A system of high schools, universities, and technical schools.

B.He set up a comprehensive system of laws.Scholars organized all French law into a system called the Napoleonic Code. (Guilt until proven innocent)

C.He established a fairer tax code.


D.Concordat- recognized that most French citizens were Catholic but it allowed for religious freedom.The Church gave up claim to property that the government has seized and sold during the revolution.


A. Attempt to invade Great Britain

1.Battle of Trafelgar- naval battle between France & Spain’s navies against the British.The British victory prevented an invasion by Napolean.

2.Horatio Nelson-British leader who defeated the French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain

3.Continental System(naval blockade against the British)-established to harm Great Britain through trade


restrictions.The survival of Great Britain,along with nationalism(loveof one,s country),are two major reasons for the collapse of Napolean,s Empire.

B.Wars against Austria and Prussia

C.Peninsular War(Spain, and Portugal)

1.Portugal refuses to follow the Continental System.

2.Napolean makes his brother the King of Spain.


To commemorate his conquests at home and abroad,Napolean decided to build a great elephant on the site of the Bastille.It was originally going to be cast in bronze,however, France was at war with Spain so it was cast in plaster.After the Empire collapsed it was left to rot.


D.Napolean decides to invade Russia (Russia began trading with Great Britain) (His Grand Army was made up of 600,000 soldiers recruited from all over his empire .

1.Czar Alaxander I,the Russian leader, used the scorched earth policy.They burned crops and everything else leaving nothing for the French soldiers.

2.The city of Moscow was burned.

3.The French troops had no housing.


Many died from brutal winter con- ditions or from starvation.

4.The primary reason for Napolean’s loss in Russia was the size of the country and weather.

5.Prussia, Austria,and Great Britain join with Russia join together to crush France.Napolean is allowed to retire to an island called Elba.


XVI.Final defeat of Napolean

King Louis XVI brother becomes king. He makes many enemies among the French people.

A.One-Hundred Days

1.Napolean escapes from Elba and returns to France causing the king to escape.


B.Battle of Waterloo

1.June 18,1815 the allies and French met at Waterloo and go to defeat the French.

2.Duke of Wellington British leader.

3. Napolean falls again and this time is sent to the island of St. Helena.Later, in 1840, his body was brought back to France.