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The skull

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The skull

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  1. The skull Forensic anthropology

  2. The Skull • Total # - 22 • 8paired, 6 unpaired • Cranium – skull without mandible • Calvarium – cranium without face • Sutures: serrated and interdigitated • The only moveable (synovial) joints • Occipital condyles and C1 • TMJ

  3. The Frontal Bone • Unpaired • Recognizable by the sinuses • Articulations? • Individual identification: unfused frontal (called metopic suture), variable sinuses • 2 growth centers (R&L)

  4. Is the frontal useful? • Yes! • Age – the metopic suture fuses ~2-4 years • Sex determination • Supercilliary arch / frontal boss • Supraorbital margin • Temporal line

  5. The Parietals • Paired • Rectangular shaped • Articulations? • Individual ID: variable sutures and foramen placement • Growth – single growth center

  6. Are the parietals useful? • Mostly for age • General thickness becomes more uniform with adulthood • Fuses with parietal only with advanced age

  7. The occipital • Unpaired • Ovoid with a big hole in it… • Articulations? • Individual ID: Inca bone p. 50 • (usually triangular or rectangular) • Growth - 4 parts: squamous, 2 laterals, basial (pars basilaris usually survives)

  8. Is the occipital useful? • Yes!!! • Age • Pars basilaris • Fuses to squamous portion at 1-3 years • Fuses to the rest at 5-7 years • Fuses to sphenoid during mid teens • Sex • External occipital protuberance • Superior and inferior nuchal lines

  9. The temporals • Paired • Circular (with a large process for ear canal) • Articulations? • Individual ID: suture variation • Growth – 3 parts: petrous, squamousal, tympanic ring)

  10. Are the temporal useful? • Age • The 3 parts are joined by ~5 years old • Sex • Mastoid process

  11. The sphenoid • Unpaired • Butterfly shaped • Articulations? • Growth – many centers fuse by birth into 3 parts (wings separated by body) which fuse by 1 year old

  12. The zygomatics • Paired facial bones • Triangular with maxillary, frontal, and temporal processes • Forms lateral wall of orbit • Articulations? • Individual ID: variable sutures • Growth – 1 center,

  13. Are the zygomatics useful? • Age • Zygomatics fully formed by 2-3 years old • Race • Suture pattern of the zygomaxillary junction generally related to race

  14. The ethmoid • Found at the base of the frontal, anterior to the sphenoid • Very uniquely shaped • Forms part of the orbit (medial wall) • Need to know • Crista galli • Perpendicular plate

  15. Not typically found, not particularly useful in ID The NASALS The inferior nasal conchae (found in nasal aperture internally, posterior to the nasal bones The lacrimals –tear ducts The palatines – at back of mouth, found behind palatine process of maxillae Vomer – small wedge of bone btw pterygoid processes of sphenoid (bisects nasal cavity) Other bones of the face

  16. The teeth

  17. The Maxillae • Paired, facial • Contribute to structure of eyes, nose, mouth • 3 processes; frontal, zygomatic, palatine • Articulations? • Individual ID: dental arch, teeth, prominence of mouth and nose

  18. Are the maxillae useful? • Yes! • Age – TEETH!!! • Race: • Width of nasal aperature • Projection of nose and mouth • Dental arch shape

  19. The Maxillae • Paired, facial • Contribute to structure of eyes, nose, mouth • 3 processes; frontal, zygomatic, palatine • Articulations? • Individual ID: dental arch, teeth, prominence of mouth and nose

  20. Are the maxillae useful? • Yes! • Age – TEETH!!! • Race: • Width of nasal aperature • Projection of nose and mouth • Dental arch shape

  21. The mandible • Single bone • U-shaped with vertical processes • Contains teeth: functions largely as muscle attachments (chewing muscles and tongue) and holds teeth • Individual ID: variable shape of jaw, teeth • Growth – 2 centers

  22. Is the mandible useful? • YES!! • Age • 2 halves fuse by 6-8 months • Sex • Mental protuberance • Gonial angle

  23. The mandible • Single bone • U-shaped with vertical processes • Contains teeth: functions largely as muscle attachments (chewing muscles and tongue) and holds teeth

  24. Is the mandible useful? • YES!!Individual ID: variable shape of jaw, teeth • Growth – 2 centers • Age • 2 halves fuse by 6-8 months • Sex • Mental protuberance • Gonial angle

  25. Teeth!!!!! • Directional terminology • Labial: toward lips • Buccal: toward cheek • Lingual: toward tongue • Mesial: toward midline • Distal: toward back of mouth, away from midline

  26. Teeth • We talk about teeth in quadrants (RU, RL, LU, LL), 8 in each • Short hand examples… • Upper, lower, left, right • 4 types • Incisors (2) • Canines (1) • Premolars (2) • Molars (3) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incisor

  27. 4 typesIncisor, Canine, Premolar, Molar www.dkimages.com

  28. Incisors • 8 total • Anterior teeth • Single straight edge with no cusps • Single root http://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v203/n10/thumbs/bdj.2007.1059-f1.jpg

  29. Canines • 4 total • Distal to incisors • Single cusp • Single root www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/CanMand.gif

  30. 8 total Distal to canine 2 cusps Buccal root larger 1-2 roots Premolars http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/PreMandTwo.gif

  31. Molars • 12 total • Multiple cusps • Multiple roots • Complex morphology for chewing and grinding • Upper molars generally have more roots

  32. www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/MolarDownOne.gif http://www.uic.edu/classes/orla/orla312/MOLARS%20upper.htm www.tpub.com