SKULL Dr. NivinSharaf MD LMCC
Objectives • Brain storm basic functions of the human skull • To identify basic anatomical features of the skull • To be able to recognize different bony landmarks of the skull • To Identify outer bony features of bones of the skull • Identify sutures, pterion, and base of the skull “outer view” • Understand importance of different bony foramina of the skull” details TB discussed in CNS”
Neck The neck extends from the head above to the shoulders and thorax below . Its superior boundary is along the inferior margins of the mandible and bone features on the posterior aspect of the skull. The posterior neck is higher than the anterior neck to connect cervical viscera with the posterior openings of the nasal and oral cavities.
Regions(Anterior View) Facial Skeleton consists of 14 irregular bones: Lacrimal 2 Nasal 2 Maxillae 2 Zygomatic 2 Palatine 2 Inferior conchae 2 Mandible 1 Vomer 1
http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/skull/SkullSlideshow1/index_PP1.htmhttp://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/skull/SkullSlideshow1/index_PP1.htm 8 bones form the adult’s Neurocranium 1 Glabella Metopic suture Frontal Parietal 2 Temporal 2 Occipital 1 Sphenoid1 Ethmoid 1
Observe The Pterion:Intersects the course of the anterior division of the middle meningeal artery
Inferior View Foramina • Ethmoid (olfactory) I. Olfactory • Sphenoid (optic) II. Optic III. Oculomotor IV. Trochlear VI. Abducens • Temporal (otic) VIII. Acoustic/Auditory/ Vestibulocochlear • Face/Jaws V. Trigeminal VII. Facial • Throat (rest of body) IX Glossopharyngeal X. Vagus XI. Spinal Accessory XII. Hypoglosal
Cont. Important openings &structures passing through them( Base of skull) FYI!!
Mandible • The final bony structure visible in a lateral view of the skull is the mandible. • Inferiorly in the anterior part of this view, it consists of the anterior body of mandible, a posterior ramus of mandible, and the angle of mandible where the inferior margin of the mandible meets the posterior margin of the ramus • The teeth are in the alveolar part of mandible of the body and the mental protuberance is visible in this view. • The mental foramen is on the lateral surface of the body and on the superior part of the ramus a condylar and coronoid process extend upwards. • The condylar process is involved in articulation of the mandible with the temporal bone and the coronoid process is the point of attachment for the temporalis muscle.
References • Clinical Anatomy by Region “Vishal”6th edition • Clinically oriented anatomy “Keith Moore” Fourth edition • 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins • Gray’s Anatomy for students • http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/skull/skulltt.htm