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THE SKULL PowerPoint Presentation

THE SKULL

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THE SKULL

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  1. THE SKULL 2 Divisions Cranium Face

  2. Most complex bony structure • 22 bones in all • Mostly flat bones, but not all!

  3. Cranial Bones: 8 • Friday Find and describe: • 1. frontal bone • 2. occipital bone • 3. sphenoid bone • 4. ethmoid bone • 5. parietal bones (2) • 6. temporal bones (2)

  4. Functions of Cranial Bones • Enclose and protect the brain • Attachment sites for head and neck muscles

  5. Functions of Facial Bones • 1. form framework of face • 2. contain cavities for special sense organs • 3. openings for food/air passage • 4. secure the teeth • 5. anchor the facial muscles of expression

  6. ALL BONES OF THE SKULL ARE FIRMLY LOCKED IN PLACE BY JOINTS CALLED SUTURES • Four major sutures

  7. THE CRANIUM (8) 1 frontal bone 2 parietal bones 2 temporal bones 1 occipital bone 1 sphenoid bone 1 ethmoid bone

  8. THE FRONTAL BONE

  9. Parietal Bones: Form most of the superior and lateral aspects of the skull Figure 7.3a

  10. Parietal Bones • Curved, rectangular bones forming majority of the cranium • All four major sutures articulate with this bone

  11. Look up the 4 major sutures of the skull

  12. Parietal Bones and Major Associated Sutures • Four sutures mark the articulations of the parietal bones • Coronal suture – articulation between parietal bones and frontal bone anteriorly • Sagittal suture – where right and left parietal bones meet superiorly • Lambdoid suture – where parietal bones meet the occipital bone posteriorly • Squamosal or squamous suture – where parietal and temporal bones meet

  13. Occipital Bone and Its Major Markings • Forms most of skull’s posterior wall and base • Major markings include the posterior cranial fossa, foramen magnum, occipital condyles, and the hypoglossal canal Figure 7.2b

  14. Temporal Bones • Lateral sides of the skull • Zygomatic process connects with zygomatic arch • External auditory meatus (external ear) • Styloid process muscle attachment for tongue and neck • Mastoid process neck muscles

  15. Temporal Bones Figure 7.5

  16. Sphenoid Bone • Spans width of middle cranial fossa • Articulates with all other cranial bones • Three parts greater wing, lesser wing and pterygoid processes • Sella turcica enclosure for pituitary gland

  17. Ethmoid Bone • Complex shape • Nasal cavity and orbital cavity • Cribriform plate roof of the nasal cavity • Crista galli- outermost covering of the brain cover connects here

  18. Maxillary Bones • Medially fused bones that make up the upper jaw and the central portion of the facial skeleton • Facial keystone bones that articulate with all other facial bones except the mandible • Their major markings include palatine, frontal, and zygomatic processes, the alveolar margins, inferior orbital fissure, and the maxillary sinuses

  19. Maxillary Bone Figure 7.8b