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Chapter 7. Ionic and Metallic Bonding. Section 1. Ions. Learning Targets. 7.1.1 – I can determine the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element. 7.1.2 – I can explain how the octet rule applies to atoms of metallic and nonmetallic elements.

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chapter 7

Chapter 7

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

learning targets
Learning Targets

7.1.1 – I can determine the number of valence electrons in an atom of a representative element.

7.1.2 – I can explain how the octet rule applies to atoms of metallic and nonmetallic elements.

7.1.3 – I can describe how cations form.

7.1.4 – I can explain how anions form.

valence electrons
Valence Electrons
  • Valence electrons – electrons in the highest occupied energy level of an elements atoms.
  • Valence electrons determine an elements properties.
To find the number of valence electrons simply look at the group number.
  • Helium is the only exception to this, only has 2 electrons.
  • Electron dot structure – diagrams that show the valence electrons as dots.
the octet rule
The Octet Rule
  • Octet rule – in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of noble gases.
  • Or the configuration of ns2np6
Atoms of metallic elements tend to lose their valence electrons, leaving a complete octet in the next-lowest energy level.
  • Atoms of nonmetallic elements tend to gain electrons or share electrons with another nonmetallic element to achieve a complete octet.
formation of cations
Formation Of Cations
  • An atom’s loss of valence electrons produces a cation, or a positively charged ion.
  • Usually metal atoms – very few nonmetals lose electrons.
Transition metals will achieve the most stable configuration possible so they may be exceptions to the octet rule.
  • Also called a pseudo-noble gas electron configuration.
formation of anions
Formation Of Anions
  • The gain of negatively charged electrons by a neutral atom produces an anion.
  • Nonmetals form anions and change their name endings to –ide.
  • Halide ion – ions produced when atoms of chlorine and the other halogens gain electrons.
section 2
Section 2

Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds

learning targets1
Learning Targets

7.2.1 – I can explain the electrical charge of an ionic compound.

7.2.2 – I can describe three properties of ionic compounds.

formation of ionic compounds
Formation of Ionic Compounds
  • Ionic compound – compounds composed of cations and anions.
  • Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral.
  • Sodium reacting with chlorine 1
  • Sodium reacting with chlorine 2
  • Aluminum reacting with bromine
  • Sodium reacting with bromine
  • Aluminum reacting with iodine
ionic bonds
Ionic Bonds
  • Ionic bonds – electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds.
  • Think about sodium and chloride
    • Sodium has 1 valence electron.
    • Chlorine has 7 valence electron.
    • When they combine sodium gives chlorine its 1 valence electron so they both satisfy the octet rule.
formula units
Formula Units
  • Chemical formulas – shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance.
  • Formula unit – lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.
  • Look at sodium and oxygen
  • Look at aluminum and oxygen
  • Pick a metal from the representative elements.
  • Pick a nonmetal from the representative elements
properties of ionic compounds
Properties OF Ionic Compounds
  • Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature.
  • Ionic compounds generally have high melting points.
section 3
Section 3

Bonding In Metals

learning targets2
Learning Targets

7.3.1 – I can model the valence electrons of metal atoms.

7.3.2 – I can describe the arrangement of atoms in a metal.

7.3.3 – I can explain the importance of alloys.

metallic bonds and metallic properties
Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties
  • The valence electrons of metal atoms can be modeled as a “sea” of electrons.
  • Metallic bonds – attraction of the free-floating valence electrons for the positively charged metal atoms.
metallic bonds and metallic properties1
Metallic Bonds and Metallic Properties
  • Good conductors of electrical current because of the free-floating electrons.
  • Malleable (pounded into sheets)
  • Ductile (pulled into wires)
crystalline structure of metals
Crystalline Structure of Metals
  • Metal atoms are arranged in very compact and orderly patterns.
  • Alloy – mixtures composed of two or more elements at least one of which is a metal.
  • Alloys are important because their properties are often superior to those of the component elements.
Substitutional alloy – components are about the same size and one replaces (substitutes) another.
  • Interstitial alloy – components are different sizes and smaller fits into the spaces (intercies) of the larger.