World War II World War II
Long-Term Cause # 1: The Versailles Treaty • Germany was forced to pay reparations for damages caused in the war. • $32 Billion Dollars • Germany had to reduce its military and demilitarize the Rhineland. • 100,000 Soldiers, no U-boats, no Air Force, reduce its Navy • Germany’s borders were reorganized. • Germany lost territory to help create Poland. • Germany was divided by the Polish Corridor. • Germany had to return Alsace-Lorraine to France. • Newly created countries were weak and vulnerable to attack. • Poland Finland Estonia • Czechoslovakia Austria Latvia • Yugoslavia Hungary Lithuania
Germany was divided in half by a strip of land called the “Polish Corridor.” This land was given to the newly created country of Poland so that Poland would have access to the Baltic Sea The port city of Danzig was controlled by the League of Nations. Baltic Sea Polish
Italy was unhappy with the Versailles Treaty • France and Great Britain promised Italy that it would receive a substantial amount of land from Austria-Hungary if the Allies won the war. • Most importantly, Italy was promised the port city of Fiume. • Italy didn’t get the amount of land from Austria-Hungary that it was promised by the Allies.
Territory promised to Italy Territory given to Italy Why was Italy so unhappy with the Versailles Treaty? Italy was given very little of the land it had been promised by the Allies. Italy also wanted the strategic city of Fiume, but it was given to Yugoslavia
Long-Term Cause# 2: The Formation of Alliances: The Axis Powers • The 3 major countries of the Axis Powers. • Germany • Adolf Hitler • Italy • Benito Mussolini • Japan • Japanese Emperor Hirohito • Tojo Hideki Prime Minister
The Axis Powers • The Axis alliance was not a formal alliance. • Each country went to war for their own reasons. • Japan invaded China in 1937 & attacked the USA in 1941 • Germany invaded Poland in 1939. • Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1940. • Germany & Japan fought independently of each other, & conducted the war in their own theatre (Germany in Europe & Japan in the Pacific). • There was very little sharing of technology or resources. • There was very little cooperative strategic planning. • Although there were other countries on the side of the Axis Powers, for the most part, the war was directed and powered either by Germany or Japan.
Japanese Leaders of the Axis Powers Tojo Hideki Prime Minister of Japan 1941-1944 Japanese Emperor Hirohito
The European Leaders of the Axis Powers Adolf Hitler of Germany Benito Mussolini of Italy
Long-Term Cause# 2: The Formation of Alliances: The Axis Powers • 3 major alliances between the Axis Powers: • The Pact of Steel (Germany & Italy) • The Nonaggression Pact • 1939 Germany & the USSR • Germany would avoid a two-front war; USSR had time to build up its military • A secret agreement planned the division of Eastern Europe between Germany & the USSR • The Tripartite Pact (Germany, Italy, Japan)
Territorial Expansionistic Policies of these Totalitarian Governments Helped to bring about WWII Black Area = Axis Powers at their height 1942 Germany expanded its control in Europe & Africa Japan expanded its control in Asia
The Formation of Alliances: The Allies • The 4 major Allied Powers. • Great Britain • France • USA • Soviet Union (USSR or Russia)
The Formation of Alliances: The Allies • The 2 major alliances created before the war. • The Franco-Polish Military Alliance • The Anglo-Polish Military Alliance
Major Allied Powers Great Britain The United States France Soviet Union Which one of these countries first sided with Germany, but later joined the Allied powers during the war? The Soviet Union Minor Allied Powers Australia Belgium Bolivia Brazil Canada China Denmark Greece Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland South Africa Yugoslavia Name the Allied Powers
Totalitarian Countries: Germany, Italy, Japan (Axis Powers) Democratic Countries: Great Britain, France, USA In 1936 the world was divided into 3 major blocs: Communist Country: Soviet Union (USSR)
Black Area = Axis Powers at their height 1942 Name the 3 Major Axis powers. Germany, Italy, Japan Axis: An alliance of powers, such as nations, to promote mutual interests and policies.
Long-Term Cause # 3: Economic Factors: The Great Depression • The Stock Market Crash in the USA • International Economic Problems
How did the USA Stock Market crash negatively affect Europe? Nations tried to protect their domestic production by raising or imposing taxes on imported products. This caused the amount of international trade to drop & massive unemployment.
Long-Term Cause # 4: Political Factors • The Rise of Totalitarian Governments
Why did people let Fascist Dictators take control of their governments? • The Depression brought about mass unemployment & poverty. • The people became dissatisfied with their Democratic governments. • Totalitarian Dictators promised to solve the political & economic problems of the people more effectively. • The people accepted dictatorial govts because they were promised jobs. • 25 countries became dictatorships between 1929-39. • Mussolini established the first Fascist dictatorship in Italy in 1922. • Germany introduced Nazi ideals under Hitler in 1933
Long-Term Cause # 5: Hitler’s Leadership • What actions did Hitler take which helped to bring about WWII? • He promoted extreme nationalism • He encouraged anti-Semitic scapegoating (He blamed the Jews for Germany’s economic and political problems) • He challenged the Versailles Treaty • He rebuilt the German army • He moved the military into the demilitarized zone: the Rhineland • He practiced territorial aggression • Annexation of Austria • Annexation of the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia • The annexation of all of Czechoslovakia
German Rearmament Article 160. After that date (March 31, 1920) the total number of effectives in the Army of the States constituting Germany must not exceed one hundred thousand men, including officers & establishments of depots. The Army shall be devoted exclusively to the maintenance of order within the territory & to the control of the frontiers. ARTICLE 181. After the expiration of a period of two months from the coming into force of the present Treaty the German naval forces in commission must not exceed: 6 battleships of the Deutschland or Lothringen type, 6 light cruisers, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedo boats… Article 198. Germany may, during a period not extending beyond October 1, 1919, maintain a maximum number of one hundred seaplanes or flying boats, which shall be exclusively employed in searching for submarine mines…
By 1939 the size of the German military was second only to that of the Soviet Union. German Stuka first flew in 1935 Battleship Bismark German U-Boat
Hitler announcing the ‘peaceful’ acquisition of Austriain Berlin March 1938 Hitler
Event # 1: The Czechoslovakia Crisis • Hitler claimed the Czech govt. was mistreating the Germans living in this region. • In 1938 Hitler demanded the return of the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia. Why he really wanted it was because it was: • A mineral rich, naturally defensible region. • France & Great Britain supported self-determination (right of citizens to choose their own govt.) for the Sudeten citizens. • Sept. 22, 1938 Hitler demanded that Germany be allowed to annex the region. Mussolini Neville Chamberlain
The Czechoslovakia Crisis Germany demanded the Sudetenland Rather than go to war, France & Great Britain met with Hitler & Mussolini in Munich, Germany. It was agreed that Hitler could have the Sudetenland, as long as he agreed that this was his last territorial demand. The Munich Pact is known as a Policy of Appeasement This is called the Munich Pact
Poland supported Germany in the Czech Crisis & was rewarded by receiving the Teschen region in 1938.
The Munich Conference in Munich, GermanyThe Munich Pact was signed on Sept. 29, 1938 Hitler was allowed to annex the Sudetenland Chamberlain Great Britain Hitler Germany Mussolini Italy Daladier France
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain The Munich Pact When he arrived back in Great Britain after the Munich Conference had ended on September 30, 1938, Chamberlain said: "My good friends this is the second time in our History that there has come back from Germany to Downing Street peace with honor. I believe it is peace in our time."
Germany had complete military control of the Sudetenland by October 10, 1938. A Sudeten woman dutifully salutes parading Nazis, Oct.1938.
Event # 2: The Violation of the Munich Pact German Troops Enter Prague, Czechoslovakia, 1939
Event # 2: Hitler’s Violation of the Munich Pact? • After the annexation of the Sudetenland, Hitler began pressuring the Czech govt. to replace its govt. leaders with new leaders who were sympathetic toward Germany. • Hitler threatened the Czech govt. with all-out war if it did not agree to his demands. • Czechoslovakia did not meet Hitler’s demands. • On March 15, 1939, German forces entered Czechoslovakia and annexed the country. • The Munich Pact was broken. • France & Great Britain did nothing to stop Hitler!
On August 23, 1939 it was revealed that Stalin (USSR) had made a Nonaggression Pact with Hitler, despite the fact that they were hated rivals. 1) Hitler wanted to avoid a two-front war. 2) Stalin needed time to build up his army. France & Great Britain signed a formal agreement with Poland two days later, on Aug. 25, 1939, promising military support if Germany invaded Poland.
In 1939 Hitler demanded the return of the Polish Corridor. This strip of land gave the newly created country of Poland access to the Baltic Sea so it wouldn’t be landlocked. It also divided Germany into two parts. Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. Baltic Sea Polish
Nonaggression Pact: Germany and the USSR August 23, 1939 Article I. Both High Contracting Parties obligate, themselves to desist from any act of violence, any aggressive action, & any attack on each other, either individually or jointly with other powers. Article II. Should one of the High Contracting Parties become the object of belligerent action by a third power, the other High Contracting Party shall in no manner lend its support to this third power. Article III. The Governments of the two High Contracting Parties shall in the future maintain continual contact with one another for the purpose of consultation in order to exchange information on problems affecting their common interests. Article IV. Neither of the two High Contracting Parties shall participate in any grouping of powers whatsoever that is directly or indirectly aimed at the other party. Article V. Should disputes or conflicts arise between the High Contracting Parties over problems of one kind or another, both parties shall settle these disputes or conflicts exclusively through friendly exchange of opinion or, if necessary, through the establishment of arbitration commissions. Article VI. The present treaty is concluded for a period of ten years, with the provision that, in so far as one of the High Contracting Parties does not denounce it one year prior to the expiration of this period, the validity of this treaty shall automatically be extended for another five years. Article VI. The present treaty shall be ratified within the shortest possible time. The ratifications shall be exchanged in Berlin. The agreement shall enter into force as soon as it is signed. Done in duplicate, in the German & Russian languages. MOSCOW, August 23, 1939. For the Govt. of the German Reich: V. RIBBENTROP With full power of the Govt. of the U.S.S.R.: V. MOLOTOV Secret Additional Protocol Article II. In the event of a territorial and political rearrangement of the areas belonging to the Polish State, the spheres of influence of Germany & the U.S.S.R. shall be bounded approximately by the line of the rivers Narev, Vistula and San.
Edouard Daladier’s statement to the press on the Franco-Polish Alliance April 13, 1939 • Within a week of the formalization of the Anglo-Polish Military Alliance, Edouard Daladier, the French Minister for War and National Defense of France, issued the following statement to the press: "The French Government ... derives great satisfaction from the conclusion of the reciprocal undertakings between Great Britain and Poland, who have decided to give each other mutual support in defence of their independence in the event of either being threatened directly or indirectly. The Franco-Polish alliance is, moreover, confirmed in the same spirit by the French Government and the Polish Government. France and Poland guarantee each other immediate and direct aid against any threat direct or indirect, which might aim a blow at their vital interests."
Proclamation by Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of the Reich, to the German Army, September 1,1939. • “The Polish State has refused the peaceful settlement of relations which I desired, and has appealed to arms. Germans in Poland are persecuted with bloody terror and driven from their houses. A series of violations of the frontier, intolerable to a great Power, prove that Poland is no longer willing to respect the frontier of the Reich. • In order to put an end to this lunacy, I have no other choice than to meet force with force from now on. The German Army will fight the battle for the honour and the vital rights of reborn Germany with hard determination. I expect that every soldier, mindful of the great traditions of eternal German soldiery, will ever remain conscious that he is a representative of the National-Socialist Greater Germany. Long live our people and our Reich!”
Radio Address to the Citizens of Great Britain by Neville Chamberlain, British Prime Minister September 3, 1939. “I am speaking to you from the Cabinet Room at 10, Downing Street. This morning the British Ambassador in Berlin handed the German Government a final Note stating that unless we heard from them by 11 0'clock that they were prepared at once to withdraw their troops from Poland a state of war would exist between us. I have to tell you now that no such undertaking has been received, and that consequently this country is at war with Germany.”
On Sept. 1, 1939, the German Military invaded Poland from the West. ~~~~~~~~~~~On Sept 17, 1939 the Soviet Military invaded Poland from the east ~~~~~~~~~~~This was the First Act of WWII