East Asia Chapters 27-29
Landforms • High mountains in this region limited contact between people living in Asia • Kunlun Mountains- located west of China • Qinling Shandi Mountains- divide north and south China. • Although very mountainous, some low lying plains exist and are sparsely populated. • Plateau of Tibet, TarimPendi Basin.
Landforms • Deserts • Largest desert in the world, the Gobi is larger than Texas and California combined • Peninsulas • The eastern coast of China • Many ports due to large coastline • Korean Peninsula • The Islands of East Asia • Formed by continental shelf • Hong Kong is part of this island chain
Rivers • Three great rivers in China • Huang He (Yellow River): causes terrible flooding • Chang Jiang (Yangtze River): Longest river in Asia, major trade route • Xi Jiang (West River): forms large estuary- where a river meets ocean tides • Yalu Jiang: forms border between China and Korea and was the starting point of the Korean War
Resources • Natural and mineral resources are unevenly distributed throughout East Asia. • Example: China, North Korea, and Mongolia have plentiful resources and Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan do not • The latter three are great world powers nonetheless • Land and Forests • Due to mountainous areas, agriculture is limited • Vast supplies of forests to all countries and areas • Mineral and Energy Resources • China has large supply of petroleum, coal, and natural gas • Japan trades for what it needs
Climate • Subarctic- small sliver in northern Mongolia that has extremely cold climate • Highland- Western China, the higher the altitude and latitude, the colder it gets, sparsely populated, vast tundra • Humid Continental- NE China, North Korea, and northern South Korea, temperate grasslands • Humid Subtropical- SE China, Southern South Korea, and Taiwan, forests of mixed variety and sandy soil
Human-Environment Interaction • Three Gorges Dam • Built on the Chang Jiang • Controls flooding on the 3rd largest river in the world • Also creates energy • World’s biggest dam • Positive Effects: • Irrigates ½ of Chinese crops • Allows ships to reach the Chinese interior • Provides power • Negative Effects: • Between 1 and 2 million people have had to relocate due to water levels • Construction costs
Human-Environment Interaction • Japanese Overcrowding • 60% of Japanese live on 3% of the land • Pollution • Mercury poisoning causes disease • Adapting to limited space • Shown great ingenuity in adapting to space • Landfills: soil waste disposal method in which trash is buried between layers of dirt to fill low lying ground • Creating more land in large cities
China • China has been settled for over 4,000 years • Lived off dynasty rule: • A series of rulers from the same family • Shang Dynasty- 1st Chinese dynasty • Zhou Dynasty- ruled Northern China • Qin Dynasty- Gave China its name and established a strong central government • Han Dynasty- moved China into central Asia • Qing- People of Manchuria
China • China remained isolated and separated from the world for centuries until 13th century • Trade allowed other countries into China and carved up the realm due to China’s lack of military • Spheres of Influence: Controlled by Britain, France, Germany, Russia, and Japan • Boxer Rebellion in 1900: Chinese tried to overthrow Western ideas and influence
China • Chinese Revolution • Qing Dynasty tried to reform government after the Boxer Rebellion • It was too late • 1912, Sun Yat-sen lead China into a republic • 1925, General Chiang Kai-shek took over the Nationalist party for Sun Yat-sen (died) and increased communism • 1949, Mao Zedong takes over and communism won over in China • 1976, Deng Xiaoping modernizes China’s political machine
China • The Economies of China • Rural Economy: • China is a largely rural society • Self-Sufficient in farming • Industrial Economy: • Manufacture coal, iron ore, and oil • Shanghai is the manufacturing center of China
China • Religions of China • Confucianism: • Started by Confucius around 551 BC • People should know their past ancestors and honor their elders • Education is important • Taoism • From the book Tao-te-Ching • Importance of restoring harmony with self and nature • Government should leave people alone • Buddhism • Came to China from India • Rebirth cycle
Mongolia and Taiwan • The Mongols were nomadic herders for thousands of years • Genghis Khan expanded Mongol’s area • Fought China and lost in the 14th Century • Ruled by China until 1911 • Mongolia lived under Communist rule for about 72 years • Now working to modernization and free-enterprise
Mongolia and Taiwan • Taiwan is an island that was settled by Malay and Polynesian peoples • The Han dynasty took over the island • The island was won in a war between China and Japan • Japan kept control of the island until the end of WWII • After WWII, became Communist with Mao Zedong • China today does not recognize Taiwan as a separate nation • Still considers it a province of China
Mongolia and Taiwan • Mongolia still has nomads and farming is essential • Taiwan is still and island and trade is still essential • Mongolia working to update infrastructure and herding methods to open up trade with the rest of the world • Taiwan has one of the world’s most successful economies • Despite resources • Economic Tiger: a nation that has a rapid economic growth due to cheap labor and high technology • Part of the Pacific Rim: Countries that surround the Pacific Ocean
The Koreas • A Divided Peninsula • Ancestors came from Manchuria and northern China • Invaded by Japan and China due to location • Three Kingdoms • Koreans gradually won back independence • Koguryo, Paekche, Silla kingdoms • Silla kingdom eventually conquered the other two • Yi S’ong-gye became ruler in 1392 and ruled his dynasty ruled for centuries • Japan invaded before WWII and ruled until after the war.
The Koreas • Korea split after WWII • North controlled by Soviet Union • South supported by United States • 1950, Korean War broke out • Communists (North and China) vs. Democratic (US and South Korea) • War ended in stalemate • Sides remained hostile until 2000, tried to start unification process but North Korea is still ruled by crazy dictator
The Koreas • Korea has adapted many ideas from China • Confucianism • Buddhism • Communism • Before the Korean War, economy was very agricultural based • Experts say a unified Korean peninsula would form an economic powerhouse • Example: Resources from North Korea and trade in South Korea • South Korea is a Tiger Economy
Japan • Made into four islands • Honshu(main), Hokkaido, Shikoku, Kyushu • Samurai and Shogun • Until 300 AD, Japan was separate clans that farmed and traded • Yamato clan became ruling clan • Called themselves the emperors of Japan and claimed to be descendants of the sun goddess • From 794-1185, Japan had a strong central government • Landowners and clan chiefs tried to grab land and power of their area • Samurai- professional soldier (“one who guards”)
Japan • Samurai and Shoguns • Shogun- was the general of the emperor’s army with powers of a military dictator • All officials, judges, and armies were under his power • Appointed provincial governors called Daimyo • Their job was to keep order in their area • Shogun ruled for 700 years until… • Mongols tried to invade (a bunch of times) • Portuguese traders brought religion and guns (1500s) • Matthew Perry arrived in the name of the US (1853)
Japan • Emerging World Power • Japan expanded empire from 19th-20th century • Fought with the Axis during WWII • Lost war and the US took over the government and introduced reforms to political and economic systems • Japan ranks only behind the US and China in economy • Most industry and manufacturing lies 100 miles along the main island of Honshu • Manufacturing and trade are the heart of their economy • Very strong alliances between businesses and the government
Japan • Culture • Eastern Influence: • Language, art, music, religion, and government is borrowed from China • Western Influence: • Sports, fashion, architecture • Education • Highly structured • 6 days a week • Shorter summer vacations • Free school from k-8 • High schools are chosen (called juku) and are competitive
East Asia Issues • Ring of Fire • A chain of volcanoes that line the Pacific Rim • Cause a shifting of tectonic plates • Create earthquakes and tsunamis • Many older buildings are not able to sustain this stress • Created strict building codes • How does East Asia continue to see an economic and population boom with these problems? • What happens when they cannot prepare for the worst?
East Asia Issues • Trade and Prosperity • Open to the world since 1800s • Global economies- nations become dependent on each other for goods and services • Powerful economies • Jakota Triangle (Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) • World Recession hurt the economies of East Asia • May have caused global recession • Sweatshops are protested around the world • What is the best practice by countries of East Asia toward their global economy? • How does population and the United States help or hurt these economies?