Classical Conditioning. + Intro to Operant Conditioning Learning Unit Mrs. Craig. Conditioning= Learning. Means the same as Learning How do we know learning has taken place???? Learning is a permanent change in behavior. Ivan Pavlov- Russian scientist 1900’s.
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Classical Conditioning + Intro to Operant Conditioning Learning Unit Mrs. Craig
Conditioning= Learning • Means the same as Learning • How do we know learning has taken place???? • Learning is a permanent change in behavior
Ivan Pavlov- Russian scientist 1900’s • First to discover classical conditioning • Experimented with dog’s digestive system • Famous experiment • Discovered a neutral stimulus (bell, footsteps) could be taught to dog to create salivation • Normally food creates salivation. • First discovery on how learning occurs
Classical Conditioning • Most primitive learning • Starts with something that is born in the organism—UCS • UCS= unconditioned (unlearned) stimulus • UCR= unconditioned (unlearned) response • NS= neutral stimulus (no connection to UCS) the NS becomes the CS over time • CS= conditioned (learned) stimulus • CR= conditioned (learned) response
Pavlov’s Formula for CC • UCS to UCR (food to salivation) • NS + UCS to UCR (bell+food to salivation) or “learning by association” • CS to CR!!! (bell to salivation) • Learning has occurred!!!
John B Watson • Baby Albert Experiment • Uses classical conditioning to teach fear • Discrimination- fear of a specific stimulus • Generalization- fear of a general rather than a specific stimulus • Experiment with Baby Albert considered unethical today. • WHY??
Review of Classical Conditioning • Starts with an unlearned relationship (UCS to UCR) • NS paired with UCS over time • Learning takes place when the CR is triggered by the CS (the original NS). • Humans have very few inborn unlearned relationships sooo……very few classical conditioning learning opportunities.!!!
OPERANT CONDITIONING • Another form of learning • Called S-R-R theory • S= Stimulus • R= Response • R(2nd one)= Reinforcement • Classical Conditioning does NOT use reinforcement at all!!!!!
REINFORCEMENT • ALWAYS increases a behavior happening again!!! • Positive Reinforcement= praise/feels good • Negative reinforcement= avoid something to increase a behavior “proactive”
Punishment • decreases a behavior • Happens after a Behavior occurs “reactive”
Primary & Secondary Reinforcement • Primary are necessary ex. Food • Secondary – can be turned into primary Ex. Money or grades
Punishment – 2 types • Undesirable event following the behavior • A desirable event ends following the behavior
4 schedules of reinforcement • Reinforcement that occurs after the next correct response • are based on time and behavior • Fixed and Variable Interval • Fixed and Variable Ratio • Interval means time • Ratio means behavior
Fixed Interval • Reinforcement after a specific amount of time
Variable Interval Requires a period of time before a reinforcement is given but the time is variable- you never know how quickly or how long it takes before receiving a reinforcement Example- pop quiz or a nibble/bite during fishing
Fixed Ratio • Reinforcement based on predetermined number of behaviors ( you know how many behavior you need to perform to receive your reward!)
Variable Ratio • Must perform undetermined number of behavior before getting reward.( could be one or many more!) very strong motivator could be addictive!