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Sex, Gender & Culture. Males & Females . Facts that separate these two groups are carried out largely among all species Different reproductive organs. Sex, Gender & Culture. No society we know treats females and males exactly the same Females usually have fewer advantages to males

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Males females
Males & Females

  • Facts that separate these two groups are carried out largely among all species

  • Different reproductive organs

Sex gender culture1
Sex, Gender & Culture

  • No society we know treats females and males exactly the same

    • Females usually have fewer advantages to males

  • Gender Concepts

    • U.S. & many western societies

      • Only two genders

        • Assigned at birth based on external biological attributes

      • Not all individuals feel comfortable with their gender assignments

Male female division
Male-Female Division

  • Very common cross-culturally

  • Cheyenne Native Americans of the Great Plains recognize a third gender

    • Referred to by as “two spirits”

    • Usually biological males

      • Gender status of a “two spirit” was often recognized after a boy finished his vision quest

      • During pre adolescent years

Two spirits

  • Wear women’s dress

  • Take on many activities of a woman

  • May even be taken as a second wife by a man

  • Unknown if they engaged in sexual activities

  • Role of a “Two Spirit” person was not equivalent to becoming a woman

    • Two spirit females are rare

      • Have occurred in a number of Native American populations such as the Kasha of Yukon Territory, the Klamath of Southern Oregon, and the Mohave of the Colorado River

  • The oman
    The Oman

    • Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest.

    Oman xaniths
    Oman Xaniths

    • Anatomically male

    • Speak of themselves as women

    • Have own distinct dress

    Sex gender culture

    • Males

    • Wear white

    • Short hair

    • Women

    • Wear bright colors & patterns

    • Long hair

    • Secluded in house

    • Can only leave house with husbands permission

    • Xaniths

    • Wears unpatterned pastels

    • Mid-length hair

    • Free to come & go from household

    • May serve as servant

    • May serve as prostitute

    Xaniths cont
    Xaniths Cont.

    • Gender role is not necessarily forever

    • May decide to marry

      • Considered a “man” if marriage is consumated

    Physique physiology
    Physique & Physiology

    • Wider pelvis

    • Larger proportion of weight in fat

    • Typically taller

    • Heavier skeleton

    • Larger proportion of weight in muscle

    • Greater grip strength

    • Larger heart & lungs

    • Greater aerobic capacity



    Men v women
    Men v. Women

    • North American culture tends to view “taller” and “more muscular” as better…

      This may reflect a bias toward males

    Natural selection s role in physique physiology
    Natural Selection’s Role in Physique & Physiology

    • Natural selection: The process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring.

    • Women grow taller sooner

      • Bear children

        • Less ultimate height so that the nutritional needs of a fetus would not compete

        • With a growing mother’s needs.

    Gender roles productive domestic activities
    Gender Roles: Productive & Domestic Activities

    • all societies assign or divide labor somewhat differently between males and females

    Strength theory
    Strength Theory

    • Focuses on the generally greater strength of males and their superior capacity to mobilize their strength in quick bursts of energy

    Compatability with child care

    • Emphasis on women’s tasks needed to be compatible with child care

      • WHY

    • Males can take care of infants

    • Most traditional societies rely on breast feeding

    Sex gender culture

    Chaz Bono

    Portia de Rossi

    Ricky Martin

    Tyler Clementi

    Ted Haggard

    Gender roles cont
    Gender Roles Cont.

    • In most societies women breast feed infants for two years on average

    • Women’s tasks may be those that do not take them far from home for long

      • Tasks that do not place children in potential danger

      • Tasks that can be stopped and resumed if an infant needs care

    Compatibility with child care cont
    Compatibility-With-Child-Care Cont.

    • There are practically no universal female only roles/activities because of the need for nursing and child care

    • Also explain why men perform

      • Hunting

      • Fishing

      • Collecting honey

      • Lumbering

      • Mining

        • Tasks are dangerous for infants

        • Difficult to coordinate with child care

    Why do men almost always
    Why do men almost always….

    • Perform soil preparation for planting

    • Make objects out of wood/bone

      • These are all tasks that could be stopped to tend a child

        • SO WHY???

    Economy of effort theory
    Economy-of-Effort Theory

    • Helps explain what cannot readily be explained by the strength and compatibility theories

    • May be advantageous for men to make wooden musical instruments because men generally lumber

      • More knowledge

      • Know physical properties of wood

    Eoe theory cont
    EoE Theory Cont

    • It would be advantageous for one gender to perform tasks that are physically located near each other

    • Women have to be near home to take care of nursing and young children

    • Economical for them to perform chores near home

    Expendability theory
    Expendability Theory

    • Suggests that men, rather than women, will tend to the dangerous work in a society

      • Loss of men is less disadvantageous reproductively than loss of women

    Critics of strength theory
    Critics of Strength Theory

    • Point out that women in some societies do engage in very heavy labor

    • If women in these areas can develop the strength to do such work, perhaps strength is more a function of training

    Critics of compatibility theory
    Critics of Compatibility Theory

    • Suggests labor is divided to conform to the requirements of child care

    • However, women who spend a good deal of time in agricultural work have others watch their children

      • Wet nurses