Chapter 12 Gender
Chapter Outline • Defining Sex and Gender • Sex Differences: Nature or Nurture • The Social Construction of Gender • Gender Stratification • Gender Diversity • Theories of Gender • Gender and Social Change
Defining Sex and Gender • Sex refers to biological identity. • Gender refers to learned behaviors associated with each sex.
Sex Differences: Nature or Nurture? • The important question is not whether biology or culture is more important in forming men and women, but how biology and culture interact to produce a person’s gender identity. • Biological determinism refers to explanations that attribute complex social phenomena to physical characteristics.
Biological Sex Identity • A person’s sex identity is established at the moment of conception when the father’s sperm provides either an X or a Y chromosome to the egg at fertilization. • The mother contributes an X chromosome to the embryo. • Two X chromosomes make a female; an X and a Y, a male.
Hermaphroditism • A condition caused by irregularities in the process of chromosome formation or fetal differentiation that produces persons with mixed biological sex characteristics. • In the most common form of hermaphroditism, the child is born with ovaries or testes, but the genitals are ambiguous or mixed.
Gender Socialization • Teaches expectations for each sex and effects: • Self concept • Social and political attitudes • Perceptions about other people • Relationships with others
Polling Question • If you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss, would you prefer to work for a man or a woman? A.) Man B.) Woman C.) No preference
Agents of Gender Socialization • Parents • Childhood play and games • Schools • Religion • Media • Popular Culture
Consequences of Gender Expectations • Women are denied access to power, influence, achievement, and independence in the public world. • Men are denied access to nurturing, emotional, and other-oriented worlds that women traditionally inhabit.
Gendered Institutions The total pattern of gender relations including: • Stereotypical expectations • Interpersonal relationships • Different placement of men and women in hierarchies of institutions
Characteristic of Societies With Gender Equality • Women’s work is central to the economy. • Women have access to education. • Ideological or religious support for gender inequality is weak.
Characteristic of Societies With Gender Equality • Men contribute to housework and childcare. • Work is not highly sex-segregated. • Women have access to power and authority.
Women’s Worth: Still Unequal • In the 1960s, women earned 59% of what men earned. • Women today earn 73% of what men earn. • In 2002, income for women working full-time and year round was $30,203, for men, $39,429.
Polling Question • How comfortable are you with the gender roles our society defines as appropriate for males and females? A.) Very comfortable B.) Somewhat comfortable C.) Unsure D.) Somewhat uncomfortable E.) Very uncomfortable
Explaining the Pay Gap • Overt discrimination • White men perpetuate their advantage over women and racial minorities, through labor union practices, legislation, harassment, and intimidation.
Explaining the Pay Gap • Human capital theory • Age, experience, education, marital status and hours worked influence worth in the labor market.
Explaining the Pay Gap • Dual labor market theory • Women and men earn different amounts because they work in different segments of the market.
Explaining the Pay Gap • Gender segregation • Men and women work in gender segregated occupations.
Explanations Of Gender Segregation • Women and men are socialized differently and choose to go into different fields. • Structural obstacles discourage women from entering male-dominated jobs and from advancing once employed.
Contemporary Attitudes About Gender • 16% of women and 20% of men disapprove of women working while they have young children • 1/2 of all women and men surveyed said the ideal lifestyle was a marriage in which responsibilities were shared. • 47% of men believe it is best for men to hold the provider role, compared with 69% in 1970. • 87% of women say that making laws to establish equal pay should be a legislative priority.
1. A person's biological identity of male or females is their: a. gender identity b. hermaphroditism c. sex d. gender
Answer: c • A person's biological identity of male or females is their sex.
2. Condition produced when irregularities in chromosome formation or fetal differentiation produce persons with mixed biological sex characteristics is referred to as: a. homophroditism b. bisexual c. hermaphroditism d. cross-dressers
Answer: c • Condition produced when irregularities in chromosome formation or fetal differentiation produce persons with mixed biological sex characteristics is referred to as hermaphroditism.
3. One's definition of oneself as a woman or man is referred to as: a. gender apartheid b. gender socialization c. gender differentiation d. gender identity
Answer: d • One's definition of oneself as a woman or man is referred to as gender identity.
4. "Women are disadvantaged by power inequities between women and men that are built into the social structure." This statement is most closely related to the: a. "doing gender" perspective b. symbolic interactionist perspective c. functionalist perspective d. conflict perspective
Answer: d • "Women are disadvantaged by power inequities between women and men that are built into the social structure." This statement is most closely related to the conflict perspective.
5. A person's sex identity is established atthe moment of conception. a. True b. False
Answer: true • A person's sex identity is established at the moment of conception.
6. The fear and hatred of homosexuality is referred to as:a. machismob. homophobiac. heterosexismd. heterophobia
Answer: b • The fear and hatred of homosexuality is referred to as homophobia.