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Chapter 12 PowerPoint Presentation

Chapter 12

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Chapter 12

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  1. Chapter 12 Gender

  2. Chapter Outline • Defining Sex and Gender • Sex Differences: Nature or Nurture • The Social Construction of Gender • Gender Stratification • Gender Diversity • Theories of Gender • Gender and Social Change

  3. Defining Sex and Gender • Sex refers to biological identity. • Gender refers to learned behaviors associated with each sex.

  4. Gender Gap in Attitudes

  5. Sex Differences: Nature or Nurture? • The important question is not whether biology or culture is more important in forming men and women, but how biology and culture interact to produce a person’s gender identity. • Biological determinism refers to explanations that attribute complex social phenomena to physical characteristics.

  6. Biological Sex Identity • A person’s sex identity is established at the moment of conception when the father’s sperm provides either an X or a Y chromosome to the egg at fertilization. • The mother contributes an X chromosome to the embryo. • Two X chromosomes make a female; an X and a Y, a male.

  7. Hermaphroditism • A condition caused by irregularities in the process of chromosome formation or fetal differentiation that produces persons with mixed biological sex characteristics. • In the most common form of hermaphroditism, the child is born with ovaries or testes, but the genitals are ambiguous or mixed.

  8. Within and Between Gender Differences

  9. Gender Socialization • Teaches expectations for each sex and effects: • Self concept • Social and political attitudes • Perceptions about other people • Relationships with others

  10. Polling Question • If you were taking a new job and had your choice of a boss, would you prefer to work for a man or a woman? A.) Man B.) Woman C.) No preference

  11. Agents of Gender Socialization • Parents • Childhood play and games • Schools • Religion • Media • Popular Culture

  12. Women’s Participation in High School Sports

  13. Consequences of Gender Expectations • Women are denied access to power, influence, achievement, and independence in the public world. • Men are denied access to nurturing, emotional, and other-oriented worlds that women traditionally inhabit.

  14. Gendered Institutions The total pattern of gender relations including: • Stereotypical expectations • Interpersonal relationships • Different placement of men and women in hierarchies of institutions

  15. Characteristic of Societies With Gender Equality • Women’s work is central to the economy. • Women have access to education. • Ideological or religious support for gender inequality is weak.

  16. Characteristic of Societies With Gender Equality • Men contribute to housework and childcare. • Work is not highly sex-segregated. • Women have access to power and authority.

  17. Median Income by Race and Gender

  18. The Wage Gap: International

  19. Education, Gender, and Income

  20. Women’s Worth: Still Unequal • In the 1960s, women earned 59% of what men earned. • Women today earn 73% of what men earn. • In 2002, income for women working full-time and year round was $30,203, for men, $39,429.

  21. Polling Question • How comfortable are you with the gender roles our society defines as appropriate for males and females? A.) Very comfortable B.) Somewhat comfortable C.) Unsure D.) Somewhat uncomfortable E.) Very uncomfortable

  22. Explaining the Pay Gap • Overt discrimination • White men perpetuate their advantage over women and racial minorities, through labor union practices, legislation, harassment, and intimidation.

  23. Explaining the Pay Gap • Human capital theory • Age, experience, education, marital status and hours worked influence worth in the labor market.

  24. Explaining the Pay Gap • Dual labor market theory • Women and men earn different amounts because they work in different segments of the market.

  25. Explaining the Pay Gap • Gender segregation • Men and women work in gender segregated occupations.

  26. Earnings: Selected Jobs

  27. Explanations Of Gender Segregation • Women and men are socialized differently and choose to go into different fields. • Structural obstacles discourage women from entering male-dominated jobs and from advancing once employed.

  28. Theories of Gender

  29. Feminist Theory: Comparing Perspectives

  30. Feminist Theory: Comparing Perspectives

  31. Feminist Theory: Comparing Perspectives

  32. Women’s Work Around the World

  33. Women’s Work Around the World

  34. Women in Government

  35. Contemporary Attitudes About Gender • 16% of women and 20% of men disapprove of women working while they have young children • 1/2 of all women and men surveyed said the ideal lifestyle was a marriage in which responsibilities were shared. • 47% of men believe it is best for men to hold the provider role, compared with 69% in 1970. • 87% of women say that making laws to establish equal pay should be a legislative priority.

  36. Quick Quiz

  37. 1. A person's biological identity of male or females is their: a. gender identity b. hermaphroditism c. sex d. gender

  38. Answer: c • A person's biological identity of male or females is their sex.

  39. 2. Condition produced when irregularities in chromosome formation or fetal differentiation produce persons with mixed biological sex characteristics is referred to as: a. homophroditism b. bisexual c. hermaphroditism d. cross-dressers

  40. Answer: c • Condition produced when irregularities in chromosome formation or fetal differentiation produce persons with mixed biological sex characteristics is referred to as hermaphroditism.

  41. 3. One's definition of oneself as a woman or man is referred to as: a. gender apartheid b. gender socialization c. gender differentiation d. gender identity

  42. Answer: d • One's definition of oneself as a woman or man is referred to as gender identity.

  43. 4. "Women are disadvantaged by power inequities between women and men that are built into the social structure." This statement is most closely related to the: a. "doing gender" perspective b. symbolic interactionist perspective c. functionalist perspective d. conflict perspective

  44. Answer: d • "Women are disadvantaged by power inequities between women and men that are built into the social structure." This statement is most closely related to the conflict perspective.

  45. 5. A person's sex identity is established atthe moment of conception. a. True b. False

  46. Answer: true • A person's sex identity is established at the moment of conception.

  47. 6. The fear and hatred of homosexuality is referred to as:a. machismob. homophobiac. heterosexismd. heterophobia

  48. Answer: b • The fear and hatred of homosexuality is referred to as homophobia.