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Culture & Gender. PSYCH 101 Prof. Gregg Fall, 2007. Reproduction of Mothering Nancy Chodorow. Revised Freud’s theory of psycho-sexual development: emphasized “pre-Oedipal” period (birth to about 3) Attachment & identification, not sexual attraction

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culture gender

Culture & Gender

PSYCH 101

Prof. Gregg

Fall, 2007

reproduction of mothering nancy chodorow
Reproduction of MotheringNancy Chodorow
  • Revised Freud’s theory of psycho-sexual development: emphasized “pre-Oedipal” period (birth to about 3)
  • Attachment & identification, not sexual attraction
  • Both M & F begin “as if” female: develop “feminine” sense of self in experiencing world with & through mother
reproduction of mothering nancy chodorow1
Reproduction of MotheringNancy Chodorow
  • Females: develop by continuity -- sustaining identification with mother
  • Males: develop by discontinuity -- separating from mother and creating new identity

 Misogyny: “masculinity” created via repression / expulsion of “feminine”

gilligan research
Gilligan: Research
  • Student of Lawrence Kohlberg: children’s development of moral reasoning
  • Investigated differences in men’s and women’s reasoning about moral dilemmas
lawrence kohlberg
Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Investigated children’s moral development
  • Inspired by Piaget’s stage theory
  • Devised moral dilemmas
  • Categorized not answer to dilemma, but form of reasoning
kohlberg moral dilemma
Kohlberg moral dilemma

In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. the drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $400 for the radium and charged $4,000 for a small dose of the drug.

kohlberg moral dilemma1
Kohlberg moral dilemma

The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money and tried every legal means, but he could only get together about $2,000, which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying, and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from if." So, having tried every legal means, Heinz gets desperate and considers breaking into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.

kohlberg stages of moral development
Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development

Preconventional

Conventional

Post-Conventional

in a different voice
In a Different Voice
  • Men: conflicts of rights

value autonomous perspective

universal judgments

  • Women: competing responsibilities

value maintenance of relationships

relativistic judgments

gilligan s theory of ethics
Gilligan’s theory of Ethics
  • Men: Ethic of autonomy
  • Women: Ethic of care
in a different voice1
In a Different Voice
  • Men’s sense of self based on separation & autonomy – live by universal principles
  • Enter adulthood prepared for independent, competitive action
  • Poorly prepared for intimacy & nurturance
in a different voice2
In a Different Voice
  • Women’s sense of self based on building & sustaining empathic ties – weaver of relationships
  • Poorly prepared for competitive achievement
  • Fear success will cost them personal relationships
in a different voice3
In a Different Voice

Is Gilligan an essentialist or a constructivist?

Male – female differences fundamental or socialized?

Will women carry ethic of care into male world, or become like men?

john whiting

John Whiting

Child-Training & Personality

Child-Training & Male Development

child training personality
Child-Training & Personality

Child Training

Fixation

(indulgence or frustration)

Projection

(myth & ritual)

child training personality1
Child-Training & Personality
  • Indep. Variable: fixation

(indulgence or frustration)

Five areas: oral, anal, sexual,

dependence, aggression

  • Dep. Variable: illness explanations
child training and personality
Initial Indulgence

Age of Training

Severity

Oral

2nd lowest

2nd earliest weaning

upper quartile

Anal

3rd lowest

2nd earliest

most severe (tied)

Sex

lowest

among earliest

most severe (tied)

Dependence

slightly below median

slightly earlier than median

at median

Aggression

near median

near median

slightly above median

Child Training and Personality

U.S. vs. 72 non-Western cultures – early 1950s

child training personality2
Child Training & Personality
  • Oral: ingestion

verbal spells & incantations

  • Anal: defecation, feces, urine, etc.

carelessness with excretions

charms, curses, spells, incantations

failure to perform ritual

child training and personality1
Child Training and Personality
  • Sexual: sexual behavior

sexual excretions

menstrual blood

  • Dependence: soul loss

spirit possession

child training personality3
Child Training & Personality
  • Aggression: aggressive wishes

disobedience to spirits

poison

magical weapons

child training and personailty
Child Training and Personailty
  • Found: negative fixation (frustration) statistically associated with illness explanations
robert levine

Robert LeVine

Child-Rearing Studies

In Kenya & West Africa

ecology and infant care
Ecology and Infant Care
  • Pre-industrial: “pediatric” models

high infant-mortality

protect & nurture

  • Modern: “pedagogic” models

survival assumed

prepare for school & achievement

pediatric vs pedagogic models
High Infant Mortality

Infant on mother’s body; nursing on demand; co-sleeping

Seeks quiet baby: dampen excitement

Low infant mortality

Separation alternating with high interaction

Seeks responsive baby: elicit excitement

Pediatric vs. Pedagogic Models
objectives of mothering
Objectives of Mothering
  • Pediatric (pre-industrial):

minimize caloric expenditure

foundation of life-long attachment

  • Pedagogic (modern):

elicit interest & engagement in world

prepare for school & achievement

prepare to separate from family

sling vs cradle cultures
Sling vs. Cradle Cultures
  • Slings: warmer climates
  • Cradles: colder climates
slide37
Dark: cradle

White: sling

sling vs cradle cultures1
Sling vs. Cradle Cultures
  • Sling cultures:
    • “cross-gender” identity conflict
    • resolved via masculinizing ritual
  • Cradle cultures:
    • “dependency” conflict
    • resolved via solitary vision quest & guardian spirit (Native America)
whiting theory of masculine development
Whiting theory of Masculine Development
  • Long exclusive mother-infant co-sleeping leads to…

 Stronger “feminine” identification

 Greater need for “masculinizing” ritual

 Puberty rituals with genital mutilation

    • Excising “femaleness”
    • Creating “male” bodies & persons
manhood in the making david gilmore
Manhood in the MakingDavid Gilmore
  • Provides world tour of cultures, showing great range of “masculinity”
  • Adopts version of Chodorow – Whiting theory of masculine development
  • Adds: importance of warrior role
manhood in the making
Manhood in the Making
  • Truk: drinking and brawling to prove

masculinity

  • Sambia: ritual bleeding de-feminizes

fellatio masculinizes

  • Tahiti & Semai: greater gender equality

and androgyny

gilmore theory
Gilmore Theory

“Man-the-Impregnator-Protector-Provider”

  • Basis in “symbiotic” mothering & early “feminine” identification (Chodorow & Whiting)

+

  • Harsh environment & scarce resources = greater warrioring

 rejection of “femininity”

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