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NRC Decadal Survey HyspIRI . Visible ShortWave InfraRed (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometer + Multispectral Thermal InfraRed (TIR) Scanner. VSWIR: Plant Physiology and Function Types (PPFT). Multispectral TIR Scanner. Map of dominant tree species, Bartlett Forest, NH.

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nrc decadal survey hyspiri
NRC Decadal Survey HyspIRI

Visible ShortWave InfraRed (VSWIR) Imaging Spectrometer+ Multispectral Thermal InfraRed (TIR) Scanner

VSWIR: Plant Physiology and

Function Types (PPFT)

Multispectral TIR Scanner

Map of dominant tree species, Bartlett Forest, NH

Red tide algal bloom in Monterey Bay, CA

hyspiri decadal survey mission
HyspIRI Decadal Survey Mission

In its Decadal Survey Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, the National Research Council of the National Academies recommended:

- A mission for integrated global terrestrial and aquatic studies,

- Management of terrestrial and coastal natural resources,

- Forecasting ecological changes and natural hazards.

HyspIRI:

- now in conceptual design phase at NASA

- Imaging spectrometer in the visible to shortwave infrared (VSWIR)

and a multispectral imager in the thermal infrared (TIR)

hyspiri mission overview
HyspIRI Mission Overview

Urgency and Focus

Fundamental topics to understand about ecosystems:

* function, composition, and structure --> Habitat distribution and biodiversity

2007 - two mission concept studies where completed:

* Plant physiology and functional type (PPFT): VSWIR spectrometer

* Surface temperature, emissivity, atmospheric science: (TIR)

A 2009 Instrument and Mission update and refinement activity is underway.

hyspiri science study group
HyspIRI Science Study Group

Mike Abrams JPL michael.j.abrams@jpl.nasa.gov 818-354-0937

Rick Allen UID rallen@kimberly.uidaho.edu 208-423-6601

Martha Anderson USDA Martha.Anderson@ars.usda.gov 301-504-6616

Greg Asner Stanford gpa@stanford.edu 650-462-1047

Bryan Bailey USGS EROS gbbailey@usgs.gov 605-594-6001

Paul Bissett FERI pbissett@flenvironmental.org 813-866-3374 x102

Alex Chekalyuk Lamont-Doherty chekaluk@ldeo.columbia.edu 845-365-8552

James Crowley USGS jcrowley@usgs.gov 703-648-6356

Ivan Csiszar UMD icsiszar@hermes.geog.umd.edu 301-405-8696

Heidi Dierssen U Conn. heidi.dierssen@uconn.edu

Friedmann Freund Ames friedemann.t.freund@nasa.gov

John Gamon U A gamon@gmail.com

Louis Giglio UMD louis_giglio@ssaihq.com 301 867-2030

Greg Glass JHU gglass@jhsph.edu 410-955-3708

Robert Green JPL rog@jpl.nasa.gov

Simon Hook JPL simon.j.hook@jpl.nasa.gov 818-354-0974

James Irons GSFC James.R.Irons@nasa.gov 301-614-6657

Bob Knox GSFC Robert.G.Knox@nasa.gov 301-614-6656

John Mars USGS jmars@usgs.gov 703-648-6302

Betsy Middleton GSFC elizabeth.m.middleton@nasa.gov 301-614-6670

Peter Minnett U. Miami pminnett@rsmas.miami.edu 305-361-4104

Frank Muller Karger U. MA Dartmouth fmullerkarger@umassd.edu 508 999 8193

Scott Ollinger UNH scott.ollinger@unh.edu

Anupma Prakash UAF prakash@gi.alaska.edu 907-474-1897

Dale Quattrochi MSFC dale.quattrochi@nasa.gov 256-961-7887

Vince Realmuto JPL Vincent.J.Realmuto@jpl.nasa.gov 818-354-1824

Dar Roberts UCSB dar@geog.ucsb.edu

Dave Siegel UCSB davey@icess.ucsb.edu 805-893-4547

Phil Townsend U of Wisconsin ptownsend@wisc.edu 608-262-1669

Kevin Turpie GSFC kevin.r.turpie@nasa.gov 301-286-9996

Steve Ungar GSFC stephen.g.ungar@nasa.gov

Susan Ustin UC Davis susan@cstars.ucdavis.edu

Rob Wright UHI wright@higp.hawaii.edu 808-956 9194

slide5

HyspIRI VSWIR

Science Questions:

Apply to both aquatic and terrestrial systems and their interactions

hyspiri vis swir imaging spectroscopy science measurements
HyspIRI VIS/SWIR Imaging Spectroscopy Science Measurements

Science Questions:

  • What is the composition, function, and health of land and water ecosystems?
  • How are these ecosystems being altered by human activities and natural causes?
  • How do these changes affect fundamental ecosystem processes upon which life on Earth depends?

Imaging spectrometer: 87kg / 38W

Schedule: 4 year phase A-D, 3 years operations

All components have flown in space

Map of dominant tree species, Bartlett Forest, NH

Measurement:

  • 380 to 2500 nm in 10nm bands
  • Accurate 60 m resolution
  • 150 km swath
  • 19 d revisit VSWIR
  • Global land and shallow water; global oceans at 1 km

Aquatic

Terrestrial

Red tide algal bloom in Monterey Bay, CA

hyspiri thermal infrared science measurements
HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Science Measurements
  • Measure the land surface temperature and emissivity
  • 5 day equatorial revisit to generate monthly, seasonal and annual products.
  • 60 m spatial resolution
  • 7 bands between 7.5-12 µm and 1 band between 3-5 µm
  • 3-5 µm band saturates at 1400K
  • 7.5-12 µm bands saturate at 400K

1000 m

TIR at 60 m

slide8

HyspIRI VSWIR Science Measurements Characteristics

Temporal

Orbit Crossing 11 am sun synchronous descending

Global Land Coast Repeat 19 days at equator

Rapid Response Revisit 3 days (cross-track pointing)

Sunglint Avoidance

Cross Track Pointing 4 degrees in backscatter direction

OnOrbit Calibration

Lunar View 1 per month {radiometric}

Solar Cover Views 1 per week {radiometric}

Surface Cal Experiments 3 per year {spectral & radiometric}

Data Collection

Land Coverage Land surface above sea level

Water Coverage Coastal zone -50 m and shallower

Solar Elevation 20 degrees or greater

Open Ocean Averaged to 1km spatial sampling

Compression >=3.0 lossless

hyspiri vswir science measurements key snr and uniformity requirements
HyspIRI VSWIR Science MeasurementsKey SNR and Uniformity Requirements

Required SNR

Benchmark Radiances

Uniformity Requirement

Cross Track Sample

Depiction

-Grids are the detectors

-dots are the IFOV centers

-Colors are the wavelengths

Requirement

Spectral Cross-Track >95% cross-track uniformity {<0.5 nm min-max over swath}

Spectral-IFOV-Variation >95% spectral IFOV uniformity {<5% variation over spectral range}

Wavelength

summary hyspiri
Summary - HyspIRI
  • Mission provides measurement to answer the Plant Physiology and Functional types/PPFT (VSWIR imaging spectrometer) and Multispectral TIR NASA Mission Concept Studies.
  • Science, measurements, and algorithms have been demonstrated with airborne and ground measurements.
  • Compelling science questions:
  •  - NRC Decadal Survey,
  • - 4th assessment of IPCC and
  • - U.S. Climate Change Science Program
  • - Community research
  • * High relevant heritage
  • * Low risk
  • * Modest cost.
  • Highly complementary to ACE, GEO-CAPE
  • HyspIRI Science Workshop: Aug 11-13, 2009, Pasadena, CA 
  • URL: HTTP://HYSPIRI.JPL.NASA.GOV

10

slide11
Spectral

Range 380 to 2500 nm in the solar reflected spectrum

Sampling <= 10 nm {uniform over range}

Response <= 10 nm (full-width-at-half-maximum) {uniform over range}

Accuracy <0.5 nm

Radiometric

Range & Sampling 0 to 1.5 X max benchmark radiance, 14 bits measured

Accuracy >95% absolute radiometric, 98% on-orbit reflectance, 99.5% stability

Precision (SNR) See spectral plots at benchmark radiances

Linearity >99% characterized to 0.1 %

Polarization <2% sensitivity, characterized to 0.5 %

Scattered Light <1:200 characterized to 0.1%

Spatial

Range >150 km (12 degrees at 700 km altitude)

Cross-Track Samples >2500

Sampling <=60 m

Response <=60 m sampling (FWHM)

Uniformity

Spectral Cross-Track >95% cross-track uniformity {<0.5 nm min-max over swath}

Spectral-IFOV-Variation >95% spectral IFOV uniformity {<5% variation over spectral range}

HyspIRI VSWIRScience Measurement Characteristics

11

slide12

HyspIRI TIR Science MeasurementsSummary Measurement Characteristics

Spectral

Bands (8) 3.98, 7.35, 8.28, 8.63, 9.07, 10.53, 11.33, 12.05 (µm)

Bandwidth 0.084, 0.32, 0.34, 0.35, 0.36, 0.54, 0.54, 0.52 (µm)

Accuracy <0.01 µm

Radiometric

Range Bands 2-8= 200K – 400K; Band 1= 1400K

Resolution < 0.05 K, Linear Quantization to 14 bits

Accuracy < 0.5 K 3-sigma at 250K

Precision (NEdT) < 0.2K

Linearity >99% characterized to 0.1 %

Spatial

IFOV 60 m

MTF >0.2 at FNy

Scan Type Whiskbroom

Swath Width 600 km (±25.5° at 623 km altitude)

12

slide13

In Situ Spectral Measurements of Shallow Water Bottom Composition (E. Hochberg, Nova Southeastern University, FL)

slide14

Natural Color Image

Habitat Composition

Sand

Coral

Algae

Science Questions Response to Disturbance

Imaging spectroscopy is used to measure the functional types and fractions in a coastal coral ecosystem in order to ascertain the impacts of nutrients on habitat composition.

James Goodman, UPRM

Airborne imaging spectroscopy measurements of coral reef ecosystem, Hawaii.

14

science questions ecosystem function and diversity
Science QuestionsEcosystem Function and Diversity

Perceived water color

Phytoplankton Groups

Spectral reflectance (sr-1)

Chlorophyll a (mg m-3)

Wavelength (nm)

Phytoplankton groups have different pigment suites that give them unique spectral “fingerprints” that can be used to measure their presence and to understand their roles in aquatic ecosystems.

15

Dierssen et al. 2006