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Chapter 7. Assessment of Intelligence. Defining and Purpose of Intelligence Testing. Type of aptitude test that measures a range of intellectual ability. Offers broad assessment of one’s cognitive capabilities. Some ways intelligence tests are used: Assist in determining giftedness,

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Chapter 7 l.jpg

Chapter 7

Assessment of Intelligence


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Defining and Purpose of Intelligence Testing

  • Type of aptitude test that measures a range of intellectual ability.

  • Offers broad assessment of one’s cognitive capabilities.

  • Some ways intelligence tests are used:

    • Assist in determining giftedness,

    • Assist in determining mental retardation,

    • Assist in determining learning disabilities,

    • To understand changes in brain function due to accidents, dementia, aging, abuse, and disease,

    • As part of admissions process to certain private schools, and

    • As part of personality assessment to aid in understanding the whole person.


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Models of Intelligence

  • Edward Spearman’s (1863-1945) two-factor approach:

    • General factor (g) and specific factor(s).

    • “Weight” of g varied as a function of what was being measured.

    • E.g., ratio of general intelligence (g) to specific talent for music (s) was 1 to 4.


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Models of Intelligence (Cont’d)

  • Thurstone’s Multifactor Approach

    • Seven primary mental abilities:

      • verbal meaning,

      • number ability,

      • word fluency,

      • perception speed,

      • spatial ability,

      • reasoning, and

      • memory.


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Models of Intelligence (Cont’d)

  • Vernon’s Hierarchal Model of Intelligence

    • Vernon’s top level is like Spearman’s (g)

    • Second level has: “v:ed” for verbal and educational abilities, and “k:m” which represents mechanical-spatial-practical abilities.

    • Third level is comprised of minor group factors.

    • Fourth level is made of specific factors.

    • See Figure 7.1, p. 131


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Models of Intelligence (Cont’d)

  • Guilford’s Multifactor/Multi-dimensional Model

    • Three-dimensional model of cognitive ability:

      • operations, or the processes we use in understanding,

      • contents, or what we use to perform our thinking process, and

      • product, or the end result of our thinking processes.

    • See Figure 7.2, p. 132


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Models of Intelligence (Cont’d)

  • Cattell’s Fluid and Crystal Intelligence

    • Fluid gf intelligence: The culturally free portion of intelligence with which we are innately born.

    • Crystallized intelligence (gc): Acquired as we learn, and affected by our experiences, schooling, culture, and motivation.

    • Crystallized intelligence generally increase with age and fluid intelligence tends to slightly decline as we age.

    • See Figure 7.3, p. 133


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Models of Intelligence (Cont’d)

  • Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory

    • Developmental model.

    • Speaks to how one learns, not amount of learning.

    • Stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.

    • Two major concepts:

      • Assimilation:incorporating new stimuli or information into existing cognitive structures.

      • Accommodation: creating new cognitive structures and/or behaviors from new stimuli.


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Models of Intelligence (Cont’d)

  • Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    • Nine identified intelligences:

      • Verbal-Linguistic 6. Interpersonal Intelligence

      • Mathematical-Logical 7. Intrapersonal Intelligence

      • Musical 8. Naturalist

      • Visual-Spatial 9. Existential Intelligence

      • Bodily-Kinesthetic (not yet confirmed)

    • Says all humans have different amounts of these.

    • Based on research of brain-damaged, literature, evolution, genetics, psychology and anthropology.

    • Theory is revolutionary, not mainstream.


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Intelligence Testing

  • To some degree, theories of intelligence are the basis for intelligence tests.

  • Traditional intelligence tests measure intelligence based on traditional constructs (e.g., “g” and “s”) as opposed to Gardner’s model.

  • Most prominent intelligence tests:

    • Stanford-Binet

    • The three Wechsler Scales of Intelligence


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Stanford Binet Intelligence Test

  • Dates back to original work of Binet in 1904.

  • Takes 45 to 60 minutes.

  • Ages 2 to 90+ year olds.

  • Uses routing test, to help determine basal age. Then uses ceiling age.

  • Measures verbal and nonverbal intelligence across five factors: fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory.


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Stanford-Binet (Cont’d)

  • Discrepancies between verbal and nonverbal scores can be an indication of a learning disability (See Table 7.2, p. 138).

  • Reliability: For Full-Scale IQ = .97=.98.

  • Correlates highly with other intelligence tests,

  • Uses SD of 15, M = 100.

  • See Profile Sheet, Fig. 7.4., p. 139


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Wecshler Scales of Intelligence

  • WAIS-III (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) 16–89 yrs.

  • WISC-IV (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) 6–16yrs.

  • WPPSI-III (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence), 2.5 - 7yrs. and 3 months.

  • Similar tests: Downward extensions of each other.

  • Useful in assessing general cognitive functioning, mental retardation, giftedness, and learning problems


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The WISC-IV (as a general example of all Wechsler Tests)

  • Contains 15 subtests (see Table 7.3, p. 141)

  • The 15 subtests provide a Full Scale IQ and four composite score indexes (see Table 7.4, p. 142):

    • Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI),

    • Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)

    • Working Memory Index (WMI), and

    • Processing Speed Index (PSI).

  • Uses Mean of 100, SD of 15 for FSIQ.

  • Uses Mean of 10, SD of 3 for subscales.

  • See Profile: Fig. 7.5., p. 143


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Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

  • Individually administered test of cognitive ability for ages 3 to 18.

  • Subtests and scoring allows for a choice between Cattell’s model of fluid and crystallized intelligence.

  • Examines visual processing, fluid reasoning, and short-term and long-term memory.

  • Uses Mean of 100, SD of 15

  • Good reliability and validity.


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The Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Intelligence

  • The assessment of intelligence takes advanced training.

  • Many graduate programs do not automatically offer this training.

  • Can get training on your own after or during your grad degree.

  • Imperative that you have the basic knowledge of intelligence tests so you know when to refer and to participate in the development of treatment plans.


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Final Thoughts on Intelligence Testing

  • Abuse of intelligence testing has occurred:

    • Used to maintain status quo (e.g., brighter people are better than those who have musical ability).

    • Miscalculation intelligence of minorities.

    • Over-classification of individuals who are learning disabled.

    • Misguided tool to defend racial differences of ability

    • Means to differentiate social classes.


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Final Thoughts on Intelligence Testing (Cont’d)

  • Assessment of intelligence is complex and based on a number of factors: environment, genetics, and biology.

  • Conclusions should be done knowing the “whole person” as well as the societal issues that are involved.

  • All conclusions re: intelligence should have some degree of tentativeness to it.