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COLD WAR CONFLICTS. U.S vs. U.S.S.R. United States: 1949 - United States joins NATO 1952 – US explodes first hydrogen bomb 1960 – JFK is elected president. World: 1945 – United Nations is established 1948 – Berlin begins its airlift 1950 – Korean War begins

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cold war conflicts

COLD WAR CONFLICTS

U.S vs. U.S.S.R.

timeline what s happening
United States:

1949 - United States joins NATO

1952 – US explodes first hydrogen bomb

1960 – JFK is elected president

World:

1945 – United Nations is established

1948 – Berlin begins its airlift

1950 – Korean War begins

1959 – Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba

Timeline: What’s Happening?
section one objectives
Section One: Objectives
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:
  • 1. Explain the breakdown in relations between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II
  • 2. Summarize the steps taken to contain Soviet influence
  • 3. Describe how the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan deepened Cold War tensions
  • 4. Explain how conflicts over Germany increased fear of Soviet aggression
section one origins of the cold war
Section One: Origins of the Cold War

Main Idea: The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems

Why it Matters Now: After WWII, differences between the US and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21st Century

Key Terms:

United Nations

Satellite Nation

Containment

Iron Curtain

Cold War

Truman Doctrine

Key Terms:

Marshall Plan

Berlin Airlift

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

origins of the cold war
ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR
  • After being Allies during WWII, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. soon viewed each other with increasing suspicion
  • Their political differences created a climate of icy tension that plunged the two countries into an era of bitter rivalry known as the Cold War

The Cold War would dominate global affairs from 1945 until the breakup of the USSR in 1991

what separates the cold war from other all other wars
What separates the Cold War from other all other wars?
  • The cost of the war
  • The length of the war
  • The fact that no fighting actually occurred
  • The tension during the war
political differences
POLITICAL DIFFERENCES
  • At the heart of the tension was a fundamental difference in political systems
  • America is a democracy that has a capitalist economic system, free elections and competing political parties
  • In the U.S.S.R., the sole political party – the Communists – established a totalitarian regime with little or no rights for the citizens

Soviets viewed Marx, Engels and Lenin as founders of Communism

suspicions developed during the war
SUSPICIONS DEVELOPED DURING THE WAR

ISSUES

  • Even during the war, the two nations disagreed on many issues
  • The U.S. was furious that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin had been an ally of Hitler for a time
  • Stalin was upset that the U.S. had kept its development of the atomic bomb a secret
the united nations provides hope
THE UNITED NATIONS PROVIDES HOPE
  • Hopes for world peace were high at the end of the war
  • The most visible symbol of these hopes was the United Nations (U.N.)
  • Formed in June of 1945, the U.N. was composed of 50 nations
  • Unfortunately, the U.N. soon became a forum for competing superpowers to spread their influence over others

The United Nations today has 191 member countries

soviets dominate eastern europe
SOVIETS DOMINATE EASTERN EUROPE
  • The Soviet Union suffered an estimated 20 million WWII deaths, half of whom were civilian
  • As a result they felt justified in their claim to Eastern Europe
  • Furthermore, they felt they needed Eastern Europe as a buffer against future German aggression
stalin installs puppet governments
STALIN INSTALLS PUPPET GOVERNMENTS
  • Stalin installed “satellite” communist governments in the Eastern European countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and East Germany
  • This after promising “free elections” for Eastern Europe at the Yalta Conference

In a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible – and another war was inevitable

u s establishes a policy of containment
U.S. ESTABLISHES A POLICY OF CONTAINMENT
  • Faced with the Soviet threat, Truman decided it was time to “stop babying the Soviets”
  • In February 1946, George Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, proposed a policy of containment
  • Containment meant the U.S. would prevent any further extension of communist rule
slide14
Why did the United States feel that containment was the best way to deal with the growing Soviet threat?
  • It aimed to prevent the Soviets from influencing other nations
  • It allowed the United States to show it’s foreign power
  • It prevented the Soviet Union from growing in size
  • The United States felt that communism was a dying form of government
churchill iron curtain across europe
CHURCHILL: “IRON CURTAIN” ACROSS EUROPE
  • Europe was now divided into two political regions; a mostly democratic Western Europe and a communist Eastern Europe
  • In a 1946 speech, Churchill said, “An iron curtain has descended across the continent”
  • The phrase “iron curtain” came to stand for the division of Europe

Churchill, right, in Fulton, Missouri delivering his “iron curtain” speech, 1946

why was churchill s iron curtain an accurate description of europe during this time period
Why was Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” an accurate description of Europe during this time period?
  • Because it showed how politically divided Europe had become
  • It designated the two similar forms of government in Europe at the time
  • It showed how the balance of power had shifted from East to West
  • It showed The United States influence in other European nations
the truman doctrine
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
  • The American policy of “containment” soon expanded into a policy known as the Truman Doctrine”
  • This doctrine, first used in Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s, vowed to provide aid (money & military supplies) to support “free peoples who are resisting outside pressures”
  • By 1950, the U.S. had given $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey
the marshall plan
THE MARSHALL PLAN
  • Post-war Europe was devastated economically
  • In June 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a U.S. aid package to European nations
  • Western Europe accepted the help, while Eastern Europe rejected the aid
  • Over the next four years 16 European countries received $13 billion in U.S. aid
  • By 1952 Western Europe’s economy was flourishing

The Marshall Plan helped Western Europe recover economically

slide21
Why do you think that some foreign countries were opposed the United States introducing the Marshall Plan?
  • They wanted the money instead
  • It seemed like bribery
  • The United States had a turbulent past with foreign politics
  • The Soviet Union threatened to go to war with anyone that accepted the aid
superpowers struggle over germany
SUPERPOWERS STRUGGLE OVER GERMANY
  • At the end of the war, Germany was divided among the Allies into four zones for the purpose of occupation
  • The U.S, France, and Great Britain decided to combine their 3 zones into one zone – West Germany, or the federal Republic of Germany
  • The U.S.S.R. controlled East Germany, or the German Democratic Republic
  • Now the superpowers were occupying an area right next to each other – problems were bound to occur
berlin airlift 1948
BERLIN AIRLIFT – 1948
  • When the Soviets attempted to block the three Western powers from access to Berlin in 1948, the 2.1 million residents of West Berlin had only enough food for five weeks, resulting in a dire situation

Like the whole of Germany, the city of Berlin was divided into four zones

america britain airlift supplies to west berlin
AMERICA & BRITAIN AIRLIFT SUPPLIES TO WEST BERLIN
  • Not wanting to invade and start a war with the Soviets, America and Britain started the Berlin airlift to fly supplies into West Berlin
  • For 327 days, planes took off and landed every few minutes, around the clock
  • In 277,000 flights, they brought in 2.3 million tons of food, fuel and medicine to the West Berliners
why did the berlin airlift anger the soviet union
Why did the Berlin Airlift anger the Soviet Union?
  • They saw the United States as a threat
  • They didn’t want the British involved in their affairs
  • The Soviets wanted the US to stay out of their business
  • All of the above
soviets lift blockade
SOVIETS LIFT BLOCKADE
  • Realizing they were beaten and suffering a public relations nightmare, the Soviets lifted their blockade in May, 1949

On Christmas 1948, the plane crews brought gifts to West Berlin

nato formed
NATO FORMED
  • The Berlin blockade increased Western Europe’s fear of Soviet aggression
  • As a result, ten West European nations joined the U.S and Canada on April 4, 1949 to form a defensive alliance known as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The NATO flag

section 2 the cold war heats up
Section 2: The Cold War Heats Up
  • By the end of this lesson, I will be able to:
  • 1. Explain how Communists came to power in China and how the United States reacted.
  • 2. Summarize the events of the Korean War
  • 3. Explain the conflict between President Truman and General MacArthur.
section two the cold war heats up
Section Two: The Cold War Heats Up

Main Idea: After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was split into a communist north and a democratic south.

Why it Matters Now: Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States.

Key Terms:

Chiang Kai-shek

Mao Zedong

Taiwan

Key Terms:

38th parallel

Korean War

section 2 the cold war heats up1
SECTION 2: THE COLD WAR HEATS UP
  • CHINA:

For two decades, Chinese communists had struggled against the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-Shek

The U.S. supported Chiang and gave the Nationalist Party $3 billion in aid during WWII

However, Mao Zedong’s Communist Party in China was strong, especially among Chinese peasants

chinese civil war 1944 1947
CHINESE CIVIL WAR: 1944-1947
  • After Japan left China at the end of the War, Chinese Nationalists and Communists fought a bloody civil war
  • Despite the U.S. sending $ billions to the Nationalists, the Communists under Mao won the war and ruled China
  • Chiang and the Nationalists fled China to neighboring Taiwan
  • Mao established the People’s Republic of China

MAO

Kai-Shek

america stunned
AMERICA STUNNED
  • The American public was shocked that China had fallen to the Communists
  • Many believed containment had failed and communism was expanding
  • American fear of communism and communist expansion was increasing
korean war
KOREAN WAR

Soviet controlled

  • Japan had taken over Korea in 1910 and ruled it until August 1945
  • As WWII ended, Japanese troops north of the 38th parallel (38 N Latitude) surrendered to the Soviets
  • Japanese soldiers south of the 38th surrendered to the Americans
  • As in Germany, two nations developed, one communist (North Korea) and one democratic (South Korea)

U.S. controlled

north korea attacks south korea
NORTH KOREA ATTACKS SOUTH KOREA
  • On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea
  • With only 500 U.S. troops in South Korea, the Soviets figured the Americans would not fight to save South Korea
  • Instead, America sent troops, planes and ships to South Korea (Total UN forces 520,000 and 90% American)
  • This attack started the Korean War
macarthur s counterattack
MACARTHUR’S COUNTERATTACK
  • At first, North Korea seemed unstoppable
  • However, General MacArthur launched a counterattack with tanks, heavy artillery, and troops
  • Troops landed in the cities on Inchon and Pusan squeezing the NK troops into the middle
  • Many North Koreans surrendered; others retreated across the 38th parallel
china joins the fight
CHINA JOINS THE FIGHT
  • Just as it looked like the Americans were going to score a victory in the North, 300,000 Chinese soldiers joined the war on the side of the North Koreans
  • In October of 1950, China’s Foreign Minister warned US NOT to come across the 38th Parallel…Macarthur relayed that no threat was really credible and boasted troops would be home by Thanksgiving!
  • Unfortunately…Chinese overran the American/SK forces and captured Seoul for the 2nd time on January 4, 1951
  • The fight between North and South Korea had turned into a war in which the main opponents were Chinese Communists vs. America
macarthur recommends attacking china
MACARTHUR RECOMMENDS ATTACKING CHINA
  • To halt the bloody stalemate, General MacArthur called for an extension of the war into China
  • Furthermore, MacArthur called for the U.S. to drop atomic bombs on several Chinese cities
  • President Truman rejected the General’s requests
macarthur vs truman
MACARTHUR VS. TRUMAN
  • MacArthur continued to urge President Truman to attack China and tried to go behind Truman’s back – Truman was furious with his general
  • On April 1, 1951, Truman made the shocking announcement that he had fired MacArthur
  • Americans were surprised and many still supported their fallen general

Macarthur was given a ticker-tape parade

an armistice is signed
AN ARMISTICE IS SIGNED
  • Negotiators began working on a settlement as early as the summer of 1951
  • Finally, in July 1953, an agreement was signed that ended the war in a stalemate

(38th parallel)

  • America’s cost: 54,000 lives and $67 billion

Korean War Memorial, Washington D.C.

discussion turn and talk
Discussion: Turn and Talk
  • 1. What do you suppose were some of the reasons why American troops had trouble fighting this war?
  • 2. In what ways did American troops underestimate their enemies?
  • 3. Do you think we should have aided the South Koreans in this war?
  • 4. Do you blame China for getting involved in the conflict?
  • 5. Were you surprised at the outcome of the war? Why or why not?
what happened to george
What happened to George?
  • He was marched for weeks to what became known as “Bean Camp” because they only got eat uncooked soybeans.
  • He was tortured, confined to a filthy small cell and covered with lice…which he removed himself, one by one!
  • George had to deal with burying his dead friends only to find that the Chinese dug up the bodies to steal clothes and shoes.
  • George endured a second death march and was brutally beaten for resting.
section 3 the cold war at home
SECTION 3: THE COLD WAR AT HOME
  • At the height of WWII, about 80,000 Americans claimed membership in the Communist Party
  • Some feared that the first loyalty of these American Communists was to the Soviet Union
  • Overall, Americans feared communist ideology, a world revolution and Soviet expansion

Anti-Soviet cartoon

section three the cold war at home
Section Three: The Cold War at Home:

MainIdea: During the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent civilians

Why it Matters Now: Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations.

Key Terms:

HUAC

Hollywood Ten

Blacklist

Alger Hiss

Key Terms:

Ethel and Julius Rosenberg

Joseph McCarthy

McCarthyism

u s government takes action
U.S. GOVERNMENT TAKES ACTION
  • In March of 1947, President Truman set up the Loyalty Review Board
  • The board was created to investigate federal employees and dismiss those disloyal to the U.S. government
  • The U.S. Attorney General also drew up a list of 91 “subversive” organizations – membership in any of these was ground for suspicion
the house un american activities committee
THE HOUSE UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES COMMITTEE
  • The HUAC was a government body which first made headlines in 1947 when it began investigating communist influence in the movie industry
  • The committee believed that Communists were sneaking propaganda into films
  • The HUAC subpoenaed 47 witnesses from Hollywood to discuss their involvement
the blacklist ten
THE BLACKLIST TEN
  • Ten witnesses refused to cooperate because they believed the proceedings were unconstitutional – they were jailed
  • Subsequently, the committee blacklisted 500 actors, directors, writers and producers whom they believed had communist connections
  • McCarran Act was eventually passed which made it illegal to plan any action that could cause a totalitarian regime in US

The “Blacklist Ten” (And two lawyers)

spy cases stun the nation
SPY CASES STUN THE NATION
  • Two spy cases added to the fear gripping the nation
  • Alger Hiss was accused of being a spy for the Soviets (Selling secrets)
  • A young Republican congressman named Richard Nixon gained fame by tirelessly prosecuting Hiss
  • Hiss was found guilty and jailed – less than four years later Nixon was VP

Nixon examines microfilm in Hiss case

the rosenbergs
THE ROSENBERGS
  • Another high profile trial was the Rosenberg spy case
  • The Rosenbergs were accused of providing information to Soviets which enabled them to produce an atomic bomb in 1949
  • When sentenced, Judge Irving Kaufman said their crime was “worse than murder”
  • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were found guilty and executed

The Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens executed for espionage

mccarthy launches witch hunt
MCCARTHY LAUNCHES “WITCH HUNT”
  • The most famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican from Wisconsin
  • McCarthy took advantage of people’s concern about Communism by making unsupported claims that 205 state department members were Communists
mccarthy s downfall
MCCARTHY’S DOWNFALL
  • Finally, in 1954 McCarthy went too far
  • He accused high ranking Army officers of being Communists
  • In the televised proceedings McCarthy’s bullying of witnesses alienated the national audience
  • Three years later he died of alcoholism at age 49

McCarthy’s attacking style and utter lack of evidence led to his downfall

the american shame
THE AMERICAN SHAME
  • Today, those Congressional witch hunts and episodes of “red-baiting" are universally discredited as abuse of official power
  • The history of the blacklist era has come to stand for, censorship, and political despotism; and the blacklisting, persecution, and jailing of American citizens for their political beliefs - or their perceived political beliefs - is regarded as a shameful chapter in modern American history
section 4 two nations live on the edge
SECTION 4: TWO NATIONS LIVE ON THE EDGE
  • After World War II, the U.S. and U.S.S.R. competed in developing atomic and hydrogen bombs
  • The Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in 1949
  • The U.S. began work on a bomb 67 times stronger than the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima – the hydrogen bomb

An H-bomb test conducted by America near Bikini Island in Pacific Ocean, 1954

section four two nations live on the edge
Section Four: Two Nations Live on the Edge:

Main Idea: During the 1950’s, the United States and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war.

Why it Matters Now: The Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting US policies in Cuba, Central America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East

Key Terms:

H-bomb

Dwight D. Eisenhower

John Foster Dulles

Brinksmanship

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Key Terms:

Warsaw Pact

Eisenhower Doctrine

Nikita Khrushchev

Francis Gary Powers

U-2 Incident

brinkmanship
BRINKMANSHIP
  • By the time both countries had the H-bomb (1953), President Dwight D. Eisenhower and his Secretary of State John Foster Dulles made it clear they were willing to use all military force (including nuclear weapons) to stop aggression
  • The Soviets followed suit
  • This willingness to go to the edge of all-out war became known as brinkmanship

Some Americans created shelters in their backyards in case of nuclear attack

the cold war spreads
THE COLD WAR SPREADS
  • As the Cold War heated up, the U.S. depended more and more on information compiled by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
  • The CIA began attempts to weaken or overthrow governments unfriendly to the U.S gathers information through use of spies, and carries out covert missions.
covert ops in latin america
COVERT OPS IN LATIN AMERICA
  • In 1954, the CIA also took covert actions in Guatemala (a Central America country just south of Mexico)
  • The U.S. believed Guatemala was on the verge of becoming Communist, so the CIA trained an army which invaded the small country
  • The actions eventually failed as a military dictator rose to power
the warsaw pact
THE WARSAW PACT
  • To counter the U.S. defense alliance (NATO), in 1955 the Soviets formed their own mutual defense alliance known as the Warsaw Pact
slide61

NATO

WARSAW

NEUTRAL

the hungarian uprising
THE HUNGARIAN UPRISING
  • Dominated by the Soviet Union since the end of WWII, the Hungarian people rose up in revolt in 1956
  • Led by Imre Nagy, (had been approved by Khrushchev initially) the liberal Communist leader of Hungary, the people demanded free elections and the end of Soviet domination

The Soviets’ response was swift and brutal – 30,000 Hungarians were killed (including Nagy) as the Soviets reasserted control

The Soviets responded to the Hungarian revolt with tanks

eisenhower doctrine
In January 1957, President Eisenhower issued a “warning” that stated that the US would help any country in the Middle East defend itself from communism

Congress approves this doctrine in March and now the President had power to use the military at his discretion

Eisenhower

Eisenhower Doctrine
the cold war takes to the skies
THE COLD WAR TAKES TO THE SKIES
  • The Space Race was initially dominated by the Soviets
  • On October 4, 1957, they launched Sputnik, the world’s first artificial satellite
  • Sputnik traveled around earth at 18,000 miles an hour, circling the globe every 96 minutes
u 2 planes spy on soviets
U-2 PLANES SPY ON SOVIETS
  • In the late 1950s, the CIA began secret high-altitude spy missions over Soviet territory
  • The U-2’s infra-red cameras took detailed pictures of Soviet troop movements & missile sites
u 2 spy plane shot down over ussr
U-2 SPY PLANE SHOT DOWN OVER USSR
  • On May 1, 1960, Gary Power’s U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet territory
  • Powers parachuted into Soviet territory, was captured and sentenced to 10-years in prison
  • Because of this incident, the 1960s opened with tension between the two superpowers as great as ever

Powers was released in 1962 in exchange for convicted Soviet spy Rudolph Abel

summary
Summary
  • The “Cold War” which cost an estimated 13.1 trillion dollars from 1945-1996 ended with the symbolic Berlin Wall being torn down. Abroad and at home, many people feared world wide communism and destroyed civil liberties.
  • A look ahead…In the next mini-unit we will examine the Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis and the end of communism in the USSR.