COLD WAR CONFLICTS. U.S vs. U.S.S.R. United States: 1949 - United States joins NATO 1952 – US explodes first hydrogen bomb 1960 – JFK is elected president. World: 1945 – United Nations is established 1948 – Berlin begins its airlift 1950 – Korean War begins
U.S vs. U.S.S.R.
Main Idea: The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems
Why it Matters Now: After WWII, differences between the US and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21st Century
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
The Cold War would dominate global affairs from 1945 until the breakup of the USSR in 1991
Soviets viewed Marx, Engels and Lenin as founders of Communism
The United Nations today has 191 member countries
In a 1946 speech, Stalin said communism and capitalism were incompatible – and another war was inevitable
Churchill, right, in Fulton, Missouri delivering his “iron curtain” speech, 1946
The Marshall Plan helped Western Europe recover economically
Like the whole of Germany, the city of Berlin was divided into four zones
On Christmas 1948, the plane crews brought gifts to West Berlin
The NATO flag
Main Idea: After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was split into a communist north and a democratic south.
Why it Matters Now: Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States.
For two decades, Chinese communists had struggled against the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-Shek
The U.S. supported Chiang and gave the Nationalist Party $3 billion in aid during WWII
However, Mao Zedong’s Communist Party in China was strong, especially among Chinese peasants
Macarthur was given a ticker-tape parade
Korean War Memorial, Washington D.C.
MainIdea: During the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent civilians
Why it Matters Now: Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg
The “Blacklist Ten” (And two lawyers)
Nixon examines microfilm in Hiss case
The Rosenbergs were the first U.S. citizens executed for espionage
McCarthy’s attacking style and utter lack of evidence led to his downfall
An H-bomb test conducted by America near Bikini Island in Pacific Ocean, 1954
Main Idea: During the 1950’s, the United States and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war.
Why it Matters Now: The Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting US policies in Cuba, Central America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East
Dwight D. Eisenhower
John Foster Dulles
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Francis Gary Powers
Some Americans created shelters in their backyards in case of nuclear attack
The Soviets’ response was swift and brutal – 30,000 Hungarians were killed (including Nagy) as the Soviets reasserted control
The Soviets responded to the Hungarian revolt with tanks
Congress approves this doctrine in March and now the President had power to use the military at his discretion
Powers was released in 1962 in exchange for convicted Soviet spy Rudolph Abel