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Cold War Conflicts

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  1. Cold War Conflicts Korea - Vietnam

  2. Korea • First war that grew from Cold War ideologies • 1950 – Communist North Korea crossed the 38th parallel and attacked Democratic South Korea • Douglas MacArthur • Led America to victory • Fired by Truman for being insubordinate • Wanted to use A-bomb against China • 38thparallel kept as a result

  3. Bay of Pigs Invasion • CIA trained Cubans to overthrow Communist Fidel Castro • Plan was a disaster • Air attacks failed • Cubans could not make it ashore • The U.S. was humiliated and had to accept defeat • Embarrassed Kennedy administration

  4. Berlin • The Soviets took a strong hold in East Berlin • They continued to seek a blockade of people flowing from east to west • The Soviets built a wall, the Berlin Wall, to stop the flow and avoid a showdown with the U.S. in Germany

  5. Cuban Missile Crisis • A U-2 spy plane took pictures of Soviets building missile site in Cuba, 1962 • Kennedy prepared the Armed Forces, the U.S. went to Defense Condition (DEFCON) 2: DEFCON 1 means war. • The U.S. navy formed a “Quarantine” of Cuba (not a “blockade”) • The world waited as the Soviets drew near • Khrushchev called his ships back and demanded that the U.S. stay out of Cuba and remove its missiles from Turkey • Limited Test Ban Treaty • Banned nuclear testing above ground • Eliminated radioactive fallout

  6. Vietnam • Vietnam’s Past • France became a colonial power in Vietnam in the 1800s • After WWII, Communist Ho Chi Minh lead a Vietnamese Independence Movement • Vietnam Battled France at DienBien Phu • July, 1954 • Vietnam divided into 2 nations – 17th parallel • South Vietnam lead by U.S. backed Ngo Dinh Diem • 1954-63 • Eisenhower sent 675 military “advisors” in 1960 • By the end of 1963, Kennedy had sent 16,000 • Both men were determined to “contain” Communism

  7. Assassinations • Ngo Dinh Diem • Unpopular leader • Overthrown and killed, 1963 • JFK killed, 1963 • Gulf of Tonkin Incident • Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked a U.S. destroyer • Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution (1965) • Gave the President the power to “prevent further aggression” • U.S. involvement ESCALATED (Johnson)

  8. Viet Cong (VCs) • Communist Guerrillas spread throughout South Vietnam (Charlie) • Passed supplies along the “Ho Chi Minh Trail” • Involvement grows • Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnam after Americans were killed in an attack • America sent in more troops • Start of 1965 – 25,000 • End of 1965 – 184,000 • End of 1966 – 385,000 • End of 1967 – 485,000 • End of 1968 – 536,000

  9. Tet Offensive, 1968 • Vietnamese launched offensive on Vietnamese New Year • Viet Cong attacked towns, military bases and the U.S. Embassy • Psychological victory for Vietnam • U.S. Offensive • U.S. continued to bomb with saturation or “carpet” bombing • Agent Orange • Defoliant – kills leaves • Caused health problems in U.S. soldiers • Napalm - Burning jelly • My Lai Massacre – U.S. soldiers killed 175 innocent Vietnamese

  10. Vietnam and Nixon • Because of growing discontent with America’s involvement in Vietnam, LBJ lost to Nixon in 1968 • Nixon removed troops – 1968 to 1972 – from 543,000 to 39,000 • Cambodia • Nixon secretly (to avoid public outcry) bombed Cambodia • Protests result when revealed • Jackson State • Kent State– 4 students shot and killed (1970) • 1973 – U.S. signed the Treaty of Paris, promising to remove forces • 1975 • America removed final personnel • South Vietnam fell to the Communists