CHAPTER Cold War Conflicts 26 Overview Time Lines 1 Origins of the Cold War SECTION 2 The Cold War Heats Up SECTION 3 The Cold War at Home SECTION 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge SECTION Chapter Assessment Transparencies
Economic Opportunity THEMES IN CHAPTER 26 Constitutional Concerns Science and Technology CHAPTER Cold War Conflicts 26 HOME “We may be likened to two scorpions in a bottle, each capable of killing the other, but only at the risk of his own life.” J. Robert Oppenheimer, speaking of the buildup of atomic weapons by the United States and the Soviet Union, 1953
What do you know? • In what ways was the Cold War “cold”? • Read the quote and answer the following: • What visual images does the quotation evoke? • How would you paraphrase Oppenheimer’s statement in your own words? CHAPTER Cold War Conflicts 26 HOME “We may be likened to two scorpions in a bottle, each capable of killing the other, but only at the risk of his own life.” J. Robert Oppenheimer, speaking of the buildup of atomic weapons by the United States and the Soviet Union, 1953
1945Truman meets with Churchill and Stalin at Potsdam conference. 1947Truman Doctrine is announced. 1949United States joins NATO. 1952United States explodes first hydrogen bomb. 1950United States sends troops to Korea. 1953Rosenbergs are executed as spies. 1954Senator Joseph McCarthy alleges Communist involvement in U.S. Army. 1960Francis Gary Powers’s U-2 spy plane is shot down by Soviets. CHAPTER Time Line 26 HOME The United States
1945United Nations is established. 1953Soviets explode their first hydrogen bomb. Korean War cease-fire is agreed to. 1948Berlin airlift begins. 1949Germany is partitioned. China becomes Communist under Mao Zedong. 1957Soviets launch Sputnik. 1954French are defeated in Vietnam. 1959Fidel Castro comes to power in Cuba. CHAPTER Time Line 26 HOME The World
Learn About economic and political differences between the United States and the Soviet Union. To Understand the Cold War and how it began. SECTION 1 Origins of the Cold War HOME
SECTION 1 Origins of the Cold War HOME Key Idea The Allied coalition falls apart as the United States and the Soviet Union find themselves in conflict with each other.
SOVIET ACTIONS U.S. ACTIONS SECTION 1 Origins of the Cold War HOME 1 Section Assessment SUMMARIZING What were the U.S. and Soviet actions that contributed most to the beginning of the Cold War? • Marshall Plan • aid to Greece and Turkey • Truman Doctrine • Berlin airlift • refusal of free elections in Poland • control of countries in Eastern Europe • invasion of Czechoslovakia
EVALUATING Former aides of Franklin Roosevelt worried that Truman was not qualified to handle world leadership. Considering what you learned in this section, evaluate Truman as a world leader. THINK ABOUT • his behavior toward Stalin • his economic support of European nations • his support of West Berlin SECTION 1 Origins of the Cold War HOME 1 Section Assessment
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS Which of the two superpowers do you think was more successful in achieving its aims during the period 1945–1949? THINK ABOUT • events in Eastern Europe • the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan • the conflicts over Berlin and the rest of Germany SECTION 1 Origins of the Cold War HOME 1 Section Assessment
Learn About how Communist governments were established in Asia. To Understand why the United States became involved in the Korean War. SECTION 2 The Cold War Heats Up HOME
SECTION 2 The Cold War Heats Up HOME Key Idea U.S. containment policies and Communist successes in China and North Korea lead to the Korean War.
September 1950North Korea captures most of Korea. June 1950North Korea invades South Korea. November 1950Chinese troops enter war. June 1950U.S. supports South Korea. 1948Korea is split in two nations. October 1950UN counterattack succeeds. July 1953Armistice signed. SECTION 2 The Cold War Heats Up HOME 2 Section Assessment FOLLOWING CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER What were the major events influencing the fighting in Europe and North America?
HYPOTHESIZING If the Communists had lost the Chinese civil war, how might later events in Korea have been different? THINK ABOUT • how North Korean plans might have been different • how American public opinion might have been different • what might have happened when MacArthur’s troops neared the North Korea-China border SECTION 2 The Cold War Heats Up HOME 2 Section Assessment
FORMING OPINIONS Many Americans have questioned whether fighting the Korean War—a bloody war that ended in a stalemate—was worthwhile. What is your opinion? Why? THINK ABOUT • what the war cost in lives and material goods • what might have happened if UN troops had stayed out of the conflict • what might have happened if UN troops had waged full-scale war against China SECTION 2 The Cold War Heats Up HOME 2 Section Assessment
Learn About the Hollywood Ten, two famous spy cases, and Senator Joseph McCarthy. To Understand how and why fear of communism swept the nation. SECTION 3 The Cold War at Home HOME
SECTION 3 The Cold War at Home HOME Key Idea The Cold War kindles a fear of Communist influence in the United States.
SUMMARIZING What events illustrate how anti-communist fear gripped the country? HUAC investigates “un-American” activity in Hollywood. Congress passes the McCarran Act. McCarthy arouses fears of a Communist conspiracy. Spy cases increase fears. SECTION 3 The Cold War at Home HOME 33 Section Assessment Anti-Communist fear gripped the country.
MAKING DECISIONS If you had lived in this period and been accused of being a Communist, what would you have done? THINK ABOUT • the Hollywood Ten, who refused to answer questions • the Rosenbergs, who pleaded the Fifth Amendment • those who informed on others to save themselves SECTION 3 The Cold War at Home HOME 33 Section Assessment
ROLE-PLAYING HISTORY Get together with three classmates, with each group member playing one of the following roles: Harry Truman, a member of HUAC, Judge Irving Kaufman, and Joseph McCarthy. As the person you have chosen, explain your motivation for opposing communism. SECTION 3 The Cold War at Home HOME 3 Section Assessment
Learn About the arms race, the spread of the Cold War, and the U-2 incident. To Understand how tensions grew between the United States and the Soviet Union. SECTION 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge HOME
SECTION 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge HOME Key Idea Tension mounts between the United States and the Soviet Union as both try to spread their influence around the world.
SUMMARIZING What are some possible newspaper headlines that summarize U.S. involvement in the Cold War troubles of Guatemala, Iran, Egypt, and Hungary and the outcome of the situation? Trouble Spot Headline Guatemala Iran Egypt Hungary SECTION 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge HOME 4 Section Assessment CIA-Trained Army Topples Guatemalan Ruler CIA Keeps Communism Out of Guatemala U.S. Prevents Iranian-Soviet Alliance U.S. Engineers Iranian Chaos U.S. Urges Peaceful Suez Solution U.S. Protests Soviet Invasion
EVALUATING Do you think that the United States should have taken each of the following actions? Why or why not? THINK ABOUT • the development of the H-bomb • the adoption of a policy of massive retaliation • covert actions, including those in Iran and Guatemala and the U-2 flights SECTION 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge HOME 4 Section Assessment
ANALYZING Which of the two superpowers do you think contributed more to Cold War tensions during the 1950s? THINK ABOUT • U.S. decisions during this period • each country’s participation in the arms race • the Soviet Union’s invasion of Hungary SECTION 4 Two Nations Live on the Edge HOME 4 Section Assessment
26 Chapter Assessment HOME 1. What were the goals of U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War? 2. Explain the Truman Doctrine and describe how Americans reacted to it. 3. What was the purpose of the NATO alliance? 4. What global events helped to bring about U.S. involvement in Korea? 5. What issue of military strategy led to a disagreement between General Douglas MacArthur and President Truman, eventually costing MacArthur his job?
26 Chapter Assessment HOME 6. What goals did the United States achieve by fighting in Korea? What goals did it fail to achieve? 7. What actions of Joseph McCarthy worsened the national hysteria about communism? 8. How did the spy case of the Rosenbergs feed anti– Communist sentiment in America? 9. By what means did the U.S. government, including the CIA, fight the Cold War around the world? 10. What technological developments during the 1950s contributed to an arms race that would last for more than 30 years?