Environmental Organizations Greenpeace & Earthjustice
Greenpeace • In October, 1969 the US Atomic Energy Commission exploded a nuclear bomb on the tiny island of Amchitka, located near Alaska, in one of the most earthquake-prone regions in the world. • Five years earlier, a quake that killed 115 Alaskans had sent waves crashing on to the beaches as far away as Japan. • 10,000 protestors held a banner that read: "Don't Make a Wave. It's Your Fault if Our Fault Goes". The US ignored the protests and planed for another test in 1971.
In 1970, the Don't Make A Wave Committee was established; its sole objective was to stop the second test. • Paul Cote, a law student at the University of British Columbia • Jim Bohlen, a former deep-sea diver and radar operator in the US Navy • Irving Stowe, a Quaker and Yale-educated lawyer • Patrick Moore, ecology student at the University of British Columbia • Bill Darnell, a social worker
Darnell came up with the dynamic combination of words to bound together the group's concern for the planet and opposition to nuclear arms. The committee was renamed Greenpeace. • The group organized a boat, the Phyllis Cormack, and set sail to Amchitka to "bear witness" (a Quaker tradition of silent protest) to the nuclear test.
In 1972, Greenpeace boarded the Vega, bound for France's nuclear testing site at Moruroa Atoll. • The French Marine’s reaction was very aggressive and members were severely beaten • The media it gave a bad reputation to the French government. • In 1975, France announced the of atmospheric blasting but transfers the testing underground. • This was Greenpeace’s first victory. • Greenpeace began expanding all around the world : Canada, Australia, England, Scotland, U.S.A ,Europe, Denmark, Germany, U.S.S.R, Spain, Japan, Mexico, Antarctica
The French Marine’s reaction to the greenpeace boat was very aggressive so the Vega turned back to were it came from. • In 1973 , David Mctaggart went back but was severely beaten by the French Marine. Word got around fast and it was all the media it gave a bad reputation to the French government. • In 1975, France announced the of atmospheric blasting but transfers the testing underground. • This was Greenpeace’s first victory. • Greenpeace began expanding all around the world : Canada, Australia, England, Scotland, U.S.A ,Europe, Denmark, Germany, U.S.S.R, Spain, Japan, Mexico, Antarctica
In 1977 Greenpeace invade unguarded Bruce Nuclear Power Station on Lake Huron to expose the reactors vulnerability to attack. • In 1979 Canadian Greenpeace parachute into the world’s largest nuclear power plant construction site at Darlington, Ontario as part of a mass occupation with other antinuclear groups. • Greenpeace established its first European office in London in 1977 where they decided to buy a boat with which to protect whales in the North Atlantic. • its first vessel named 'Rainbow Warrior' after the Warriors in a North American Cree Indian prophecy: 'When the world is sick and dying, the people will rise up like Warriors of the Rainbow....'
On 29 April 1978, the Rainbow Warrior left the London docks and the Greenpeace and United Nations flags flew together to reflect not only the international composition of the 24-member crew from 10 countries, but global concern for the plight of the whales.
CAMPAIGN HISTORY OF THE RAINBOW WARRIOR • 1978 - Whale Campaign Rainbow Warrior launches whaling campaign against Icelandic whalers and sails to Spain to confront Spanish whalers. • Nuclear Campaign The Rainbow Warrior intercepts the British nuclear waste ship GEM trying to dump 5000 barrels of radioactive waste. • Seal Campaign Prevents the massacre of 6000 grey seals by Norwegian hunters in Scotland's Orkney Islands.
1979 - Whale Campaign Enters Icelandic waters • five harpoons are fired at close range over the heads of crew members. • The Rainbow Warrior and BBC-TV crew are intercepted and detained by gun boats. • The ship and crew are illegally arrested; the Captain and UK directors are issued with an injunction and the Rainbow Warrior equipment is confiscated.
1980 - Nuclear Campaign Sails into the French port of Cherbourg to oppose ships delivering nuclear waste from Japan for reprocessing. Rammed by a French naval ship. • Toxic Campaign Blockades a Bayer ship in the Netherlands disposing of tons of chemical waste in the North Sea. • Whale Campaign in Spain Makes a second voyage to Spain to protest against whaling operations.
After successful confrontation in June, the ship is seized and held in the military harbor of El Ferrol by Spanish authorities who remove portions of the propulsion system to prevent escape. • In November, after being impounded for five months, replacement parts are smuggled aboard and the ship escapes by night, arriving in Guernsey in the Channel Islands.
1981 - Seal Campaign Crosses the North Atlantic Members of the crew are arrested for dyeing the pups' coats green to make them commercially worthless. • 1982 - Seal Campaign Return to Canadian seal hunt, this time in the Gulf of St Lawrence. • Once again, several crew members are arrested for saving the lives of several hundred seal pups. At the height of the campaign the EEC announces a ban on the importation of seal pup skins, which is the death knell of the commercial sealing industry. • Whale Campaign Transits the Panama Canal to launch a campaign against dolphin killing by deep sea tuna fishermen. Then goes on to Peru to campaign against Peruvian whaling operations. Six months later, Peru agrees to stop whaling.
1983 – Nuclear Campaigns against off-shore oil and gas development off the California coast, and against the US Navy's plan to dispose of ageing nuclear submarines by dumping them at sea. • Driftnet Campaign Voyages to the Bering Sea to confront deep sea salmon driftnet operations, which kill thousands of sea birds and marine mammals each year. • Whale Campaign Voyages to Siberia to document illegal Russian whaling operation at Lorino, where several hundred California grey whales are killed each year. • Seven crew members are arrested by the Soviets, • The crew members are held for five days, but are finally released after international outcry against whaling and in support of Greenpeace efforts.
1984 - Toxic Campaign Sails through the Panama Canal to the Gulf of Mexico to protest against ocean incineration of toxic chemicals; several days after the ship leaves San Francisco, the US Environmental Protection Agency revokes the permit to burn in the Gulf. • 1985 - Nuclear Pacific Peace Voyage Sets sail to the Pacific Transits the Panama Canal and heads for Hawaii, the first stop in the Pacific. • Sails to the Marshall Islands from Hawaii with tools, books and medical supplies. • The Marshallese are suffering from the effects of US nuclear tests carried out in the 1950s. • The 320 residents of the contaminated Rongelap Atoll, plagued with cancer, leukemia, birth defects and miscarriages, ask Greenpeace to help relocate them with the Rainbow Warrior to begin a new life on uncontaminated soil on Mejato Island.
July 10th - The Rainbow Warrior prepares to lead a peace flotilla of ships from New Zealand to Moruroa to peacefully protest against French nuclear testing. • Three days after arrival in Auckland, French agents bomb and sink the Rainbow Warrior in the harbor, killing Greenpeace photographer Fernando Pereira. • 1987 - After 2 years of international arbitration, a panel of 3 arbitrators award a damage claim settlement in favor of Greenpeace. • The French Government is ordered to pay Greenpeace US $8.159 million. • ceremony. • 1989 - The new Rainbow Warrior is launched in Hamburg on July 10th and immediately starts a European tour.
Greenpeace International headquarters is in Amsterdam . • A representative council makes the decisions for the institutions located in over 43 countries. • Each Greenpeace office designates a delegate to the Council. • They meet once a year to make the decisions for the future and have an overview of what is happening.
The biggest and foremost concern of Greenpeace is the environment. • They risk their lives just to ensure the security of the planet we live in. • They employ non-violent methods in their protest. • They hold no attachment to governments, have no connection with any political parties; and they have a non profit organization. • Greenpeace Foundation never takes any money from any group, including government loans. • They are simply an organization that seeks for protection of the environment and is favorable to any research of solutions that may protect and assure a peaceful future for the next generation to come.
Earthjustice • Earthjustice is a non-profit public interest law firm dedicated to protecting the magnificent places, natural resources, and wildlife of this earth and to defending the right of all people to a healthy environment. • They bring about far-reaching change by enforcing and strengthening environmental laws on behalf of hundreds of organizations and communities.
Earthjustice is the nonprofit law firm for the environment, representing—without charge—hundreds of public interest clients, large and small. • Earthjustice works through the courts to safeguard public lands, national forests, parks, and wilderness areas; to reduce air and water pollution; to prevent toxic contamination; and to preserve endangered species and wildlife habitat.
Founded in 1971 as Sierra Club Legal Defense Fund, Earthjustice has played a leading role in shaping the development of environmental law. • From eight offices across the country Earthjustice attorneys take on powerful special interests and win. • Throughout their history, they have achieved many landmark legal victories.
When Congress tries to overturn these courtroom victories, Earthjustice's Policy and Legislation program in Washington DC, works to halt legislative backlash and protect environment laws such as the Clean Air Act, and the Endangered Species Act. • Earthjustice's International Program addresses trade and the environment, human rights and the environment, and helps build environmental law in other countries. • Earthjustice also runs an environmental law clinic at Stanford University, training students in public interest environmental law and increasing our service to organizations throughout the country.
Makua Valley on O`ahu has been described by biologists as probably the greatest biological treasure in Hawai‘i. • home to 45 federally listed plant and animal species, as well as hundreds of acres of designated critical habitat.
Earthjustice’s history of protecting the biological and cultural treasures in and around Makua Military Reservation began in the 1980s when Earthjustice attorney Mike Sherwood wrote a series of threatening letters that resulted in the Army ending the use of rockets shot from helicopters along with a variety of other fire-producing weapons. • In 1998, after hundreds of training-related fires in the 1990s culminated in a September 1998 blaze started by a Marine Corps mortar, Earthjustice sent a notice of intent to sue on behalf of the Wai`anae Coast community group Malama Makua.
A situation arose on July 22, 2003, when a “controlled burn” fire went out of control, burning at least 71 endangered plants and approximately 2,100 acres, including over 150 acres of critical habitat. • The Army then resumed consultations in October 2003, following another notice of intent to sue.
On March 16, 2004, the most recent chapter in Earthjustice’s relationship with Makua began when Malama Makua, represented by Earthjustice, filed a lawsuit in Hawai‘i’s federal district court challenging the Army’s decision to allow the Marines to conduct live-fire training exercises in Makua Valley the week of March 22, 2004. • The training exercises would use mortars and shoulder-launched rockets, which pose serious risks of starting fires. • The suit seeks to stop such activities, along with all others that have the potential to start fires, until the Army completes the ongoing consultation process with the USFWS.
The two sides lodged a settlement on March 31 that, if approved by the court, would prevent the military from conducting any prescribed burns and severely limit their use of weapons posing risks of starting fires until the Army completes its consultation with the USFWS. • The agreement, however, would also allow the Marines to proceed with their live-fire training as long as they follow the limits of the agreement.
In 1996, the state of Hawai`i Commission on Water Resource Management granted Moloka`i Ranch, permits to construct and operate a well to fuel massive development on Moloka`i, a rural, predominantly native Hawaiian island. • opposed by the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands, the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, and local residents represented by Earthjustice • reduced the flow of groundwater to Moloka`i’s south shore limu beds and fishponds
On January 29, 2004, the Hawai`i Supreme Court unanimously concluded that the permits were wrongly granted to Moloka`i Ranch and ordered the commission to revisit the matter. • This is another significant decision upholding the public trust doctrine and the rights of native Hawaiians to water and to practice traditional gathering.
Genetically Engineered Crops genetically engineered crops
fertile volcanic soil, year-round growing season and location far from America's farm belt, Hawai'i makes an ideal location for cutting-edge research into the high-tech seed crops of tomorrow. • In the past 20 years, Hawai'i has led the states in open-air test sites of genetically engineered crops • In the past decade, the value of the state's seed-crop industry, 40 percent of which is estimated to involve genetically engineered crops, has grown 500% to a record $68.7 million last year.
That record could be challenged by Earthjustice, a nonprofit law firm based in Oakland, Calif., which is trying to use open-record laws to force the state to allow inspection of its files on two companies given permission to grow genetically engineered pharmaceutical crops in Hawai'i.
Mycogen Seeds on Moloka'i was accused of failing to plant trees around its genetically engineered crops to act as a windbreak to keep the pollen from spreading to other crops. • The GE corn in question is not for human consumption, but there is concern about what would happen if these test plots did contaminate near-by crops by cross-pollination.
This is particularly troubling for both the people and environment of Hawaii. • Over the last several Hawaii has become a sort of guinea pig for genetic engineering filed tests. • In 2001, Hawaii had about 1,200 field tests, which were pending, approved, or completed and this was the most research requests in the country. • It is estimated that up to 90 million acres of genetic engineered crops are grown in our country.
GE corn now accounts for about one-third of all corn planted in the U.S. and about 70% of the processed foods on store shelves have GE ingredients. • Harmful allergens, toxins, antibiotic-resistant genes, lowered nutritional values, and greater pesticide residues are just a few of the things that have been associated with GE foods and crops.