Organizations FIGURE 4 - 1: INDIVIDUAL - BEHAVIOR FRAMEWORK The environment The environment The individual Behaviors Outcomes The individual Behaviors Outcomes Performance Problem solving Abilities & skills Work Thinking process Job design Long - term Family background 4 4 Communication Organizational Short - term Personality 4 4 structure Talking 4 Perception Personal development Policies & rules Listening 4 4 Relations with others Attitudes Leadership 4 Observations Satisfaction Attributions Rewards & Movement 4 Learning capacity sanctions Age Resources 4 Race Nonwork Family Sex 4 Economics 4 Experience Leisure & hobbies 4 3
Individual Differences • Managers must observe and recognize the differences • Study (understand) variables that influence individual behavior • Discover (predict) relationships among the variables • We will focus on personality, perception, and attitudes • Abilities and Skills • Demographics • Racial and Cultural Diversity
Behavior is… • Caused • Goal-directed • Observed and measurable • Not directly observed (thinking, perceiving) • Motivated • Desired result is effective performance
Individual Differences Motives for Intentionally Looking Bad Intent to Manage Poor Impressions Intended Method of Managing Poor Impressions Managing Poor Impressions Situational Factors Perceived Efficacy of Different Methods Becker & Martin (1995) Management of Poor Impressions People’s motives for intentionally looking bad are a function of individual differences and situational factors. The motives for looking bad are different from the motives for looking good. Possible relevant individual differences are the need for achievement and self-esteem. + Propose that individuals with a high need for achievement will be less likely to engage in the management of poor impressions because this behavior would not generally be expected to result in long-term career advancement. + Those with low self-esteem is consistent with managing poor impressions due to negative self-perceptions. Possible situational factors are task characteristics and leader attributes. Jobs with low autonomy, insufficient feedback can set the stage for task avoidance and exit. Leaders who consider needs of employees and supply reasonable goals can reduce motive for avoidance and exit Perceived efficacy is also a function of individual differences and situational factors. Self-efficacy would likely guide looking bad if they expect it would be successful. Perceived efficacy and the intent to manage determines which methods an individual uses. Once that method is chosen, the management of poor impression will take place.
Seven Major Mental Abilities • Verbal comprehension: Meaning of words and reading comprehension • Word fluency: Ability to produce isolated words to meet specific requirements • Numerical: Arithmetic computation • Spatial: Perceive spatial patterns and visualize geometric shapes • Memory: Good rote memory of words, symbols, and lists • Perceptual speed: Perception of similarities and differences in figures • Inductive reasoning: Reasoning from specifics to general conclusion
Ability Performance Effort Skill Performance Depends on the Right Combination of Effort, Ability, and Skill
Individual Psychological Variables • Perception – cognitive process that gives meaning to the environment – organize and interpret stimuli. Easy to make mistakes based on the context of the stimuli • One’s characteristics affect the characteristics identified in others and people who accept themselves are more likely to see favorable aspects of others • Needs, Emotions, and Situational factors can influence perceptions
Individual Psychological Variables • Attribution – provides insight into the process by which we assign causes or motives to people’s behavior. • Dispositional attributions emphasize some aspect of the individual such as ability, skill, or motivation. • Situational attribution – emphasizes the environment’s effect on behavior (tardiness due to traffic rather than boredom of work). We tend to compare the person’s behavior to others in similar situations, compare to previous experience with the person, and whether the person consistently engages in a certain behavior.
Individual Psychological Variables • Attribution errors • Attributional bias is a tendency to prefer one type of behavior explanation over the other. We tend to minimize or ignore situational factors, even when the situation may completely explain the behavior of the individual • Actor-Observer bias – when a person attributes another person’s behavior to personal traits and attributes her own behavior to situational causes.
Individual Psychological Variables • Attitudes – determinants of behavior because they are linked with perception, personality, and motivation. An attitude is a positive or negative feeling or state of readiness, learned and organized through experience, that exerts specific influence on a person’s response to people, objects, and situations. • Attitudes are learned • Attitudes define predispositions • Attitudes provide emotional basis of our interpersonal relations and identification with others • Attitudes are organized – can be long term but subject to change
Individual Psychological Variables • An individual’s intention to engage in a given behavior is the best predictor of that behavior. For example, the quickest way of determining whether an individual will quit his or her job is to have an objective third party ask if he or she intends to quit. Behavioral intentions are good predictors of employee turnover (more so than job satisfaction or organizational commitment). • Although this allows us to predict, it does not indicate why. So, we consider their relevant attitudes. Behavior intentions are influenced by one’s attitude toward the behavior and by perceived norms about exhibiting the behavior. Attitudes and subjective norms are determined by personal beliefs.
Individual Psychological Variables • Beliefs influence attitudes – beliefs are mental representations of relevant surroundings – and are based on cause and effect relationships. For example, we believe a laughing co-worker is happy. Based on the model, an individual will have positive attitudes towards performing the behavior when she believes the behavior is associated with positive outcomes. • Beliefs influence subjective norms – SN refer to perceived social pressure to perform a specific behavior. SN can exert a strong influence on behavior intentions of those that are sensitive to opinions of respected role models.
Individual Psychological Variables • How do we change a person’s attitudes? • Trust the messenger • What is the message • What is the situation • Job satisfaction is an attitude that individuals have about their jobs – it results from perceptions, based on work environment factors. How do you measure job satisfaction? • Why do we study job satisfaction with attitudes?
Satisfaction and Performance • Does job satisfaction cause high performance? Does high performance cause job satisfaction? Rewards moderate job satisfaction and job performance? • Research shows that the relationship between JP and JS is not strong – so why are we still interested in this area?
Determinants and Consequences of Organization-Based Self-Esteem Determinants ofOBSE Factors Influenced by OBSE • Global self-esteem • Job performance • Intrinsic motivation • General satisfaction • Citizenship behavior • Organizational commitment and satisfaction • Managerial respect • Organizational structure • Job complexity OBSE
Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy: “A person’s belief about his or her chances of successfully accomplishing a specific task.” A Model of Self-Efficacy • Sources of Self-Efficacy Beliefs:- Prior experience- Behavior models- Persuasion from others- Assessment of physical/emotional state
Job Design Training and Development Self-Management Goal Setting Coaching Leadership Rewards Implications of Self-Efficacy
Internal Performance results from individual’s own abilities Greater work motivation Stronger expectations Higher performance on learning tasks Higher salaries and increases External Performance results from factors beyond the individual’s control Greater levels of anxiety than Internals Locus of Control