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International Organizations

International Organizations

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International Organizations

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  1. International Organizations CLN4U: Unit 4

  2. Early International Organizations • Technologyin communication and travel inevitably led to the rise of international organizations • International Red Cross (NGO)- help in time of war • League of Nations • Political vs. Non-political

  3. The league of nations • First permanent global political organization • “prevent war between nations by promoting international cooperation” • 1919 Treaty of Versailles- USA President Wilson • Collective security can preserve peace • At its peak it held 57 members (the USA never signed it)

  4. The League of nations • Geneva, Switzerland- Neutral • Organization included permanent members, non-permanent members, and an assembly • Combined with the league were the Permanent Court of International Justice (now called the ICJ) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) • 1920’s the League was actually quite successful- however it did not meet its mandate as only 20 years after its creation, World War two started • The major reason- States unwillingness to abandon notions of state sovereignty

  5. Failure of the League • No armed force (no precondition for joining of including soldiers) • Lack of the United States membership • Germany was not allowed to join (until 1926- 1933) creating an odd principle • Russia was not allowed to join (it did join in 1934- expelled in 1939) • Self interest among states was incredible • Lack of a will to persevere with sanctions • *Italy and Ethiopia, Japan and China, Germany and France, Czechoslovakia and Austria

  6. The UN • 1945 San Francisco- 50 countries (51 with Poland) met to draft the Charter of the UN • June 26 1945 (notice anything about this date?) • Currently almost every single independent nation on earth is a member (Taiwan is an odd one) • The UN Charter outlines the basic purpose- maintain peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, solver international problems and promote respect for human rights

  7. The UN • All members of the UN also must follow the fundamental norm of international law- Article 2 (4): All members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purposes of the UN • The UN is a forum for the development of laws that resolve conflict • 6 main organs plus the International Court of Justice

  8. General Assembly • Central body- one nation, one vote formula • Only adopts resolutions- of which none are legally binding- however they do carry the weight of shared world opinion • Norm generating institution- International Law Commission- the world’s think tank for the creation of new legal norms

  9. The Security Council • Maintains international peace and security- most powerful organ of the UN • The SC has the power to make decisions that are legally binding on all members of the UN according to the UN Charter (sanctions) • 15 members- victors of WW2 are permanent members (China, France, Russia, The U.K. and the USA)- 10 non- permanent members are elected every 2 years by the General Assembly • Un Charter allowed the Security Council to: investigate any dispute, or any situation which might lead to an international friction or give rise to a dispute • The 5 permanent members are given a veto power •