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EARLY EXPLORERS & FAR EAST REFORM. EUROPEANS EXPLORE THE EAST. 1100 EUROPEANS BATTLED THE MUSLIMS FOR THE HOLY LANDS. 1275 MARCO POLO REACHED THE COURT OF KUBLIA KHAN IN CHINA. WHY DID EUROPEANS EXPLORE? 1. DESIRE FOR WEALTH SPICES & OTHER LUXURY ITEMS FROM THE EAST BROUGHT WEALTH.

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EARLY EXPLORERS & FAR EAST REFORM


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    1. EARLY EXPLORERS & FAR EAST REFORM

    2. EUROPEANS EXPLORE THE EAST • 1100 EUROPEANS BATTLED THE MUSLIMS FOR THE HOLY LANDS. • 1275 MARCO POLO REACHED THE COURT OF KUBLIA KHAN IN CHINA. • WHY DID EUROPEANS EXPLORE? • 1. DESIRE FOR WEALTH • SPICES & OTHER LUXURY ITEMS FROM THE EAST BROUGHT WEALTH. • DEMAND GREATER THAN SUPPLY. • MUSLIMS & ITALIANS CONTROLLED GOODS TRADED FROM THE EAST.

    3. EASTERN TRADE ROUTES

    4. WHY DID EUROPEANS EXPLORE?: CONT’D • 2. SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY. • EUROPEANS WANTED TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITY; BOTH CATHOLIC AND PROTESTANT. • 3. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES. • CARAVEL: A NEW SHIP W/ TRIANGULAR SAILS THAT ENABLED IT TO SAIL AGAINST THE WIND. • ASTROLABE: INSTRUMENT THAT TELLS DEGREES N&S OF THE EQUATOR. • COMPASS: INSTRUMENT THAT ALWAYS SHOWS THE CARDINAL DIRECTION NORTH.

    5. CARAVEL • COMPASS • ASTROLABE

    6. PORTUGAL LEADS THE WAY • PORTUGAL LEADS IN DEVELOPING AND APPLYING SAILING INNOVATIONS. • PORTUGUESE EXPLORE AFRICA: • PRINCE HENRY: PORTUGUESE PRINCE THAT STRONGLY SUPPORTED OVERSEAS EXPLORATION. • FOUNDED A NAVIGATION SCHOOL IN PORTUGAL. • PORTUGUESE SAILORS REACH ASIA: • BARTOLOMEU DIAS: 1ST EXPLORER TO SAIL AROUND THE TIP OF AFRICA. • VASCO DE GAMA: 1ST EXPLORER TO REACH THE PORT OF CALICUT.

    7. SPANISH CLAIMS • IN 1492 SPAIN HIRED AN ITALIAN SAILOR NAMED CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS TO FIND A DIRECT ROUTE EAST BY SAILING WEST. • LINE OF DEMARCATION: LINE SUGGESTED BY POPE ALEXANDER VI TO KEEP PEACE B/N SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. • The pope's line ran from the arctic pole to the Antarctic pole one-hundred leagues west of the Azores and Cape Verde Islands. Anything to the west of that line belonged to Spain. Anything to the east, belonged to Portugal. The exception was if any other Christian king or power already held lands within those areas by Christmas day, 1493.

    8. LINE OF DEMARCATION

    9. TREATY OF TORDESILLAS: TREATY WHERE SPAIN AND PORTUGAL AGREED TO HONOR THE LINE OF DEMARCATION. • CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

    10. PORTUGAL’S TRADING EMPIRE • PORT. TOOK OVER MUSLIM TRADE IN AND AROUND THE INDIAN OCEAN. • GOA: PORT. TRADING CAPITAL IN INDIA. • PORT. CONQUERS THE STRAIT OF MALACCA, LATER KNOWN AS THE SPICE ISLANDS. • FERDINAND MAGELLAN: SPANISH EXPLORER THAT SETTLED THE PHILLIPINES FOR SPAIN; 1ST TO CIRCUMNAVIGATE THE WORLD.

    11. ENGLISH AND DUTCH DRIVE OUT THE PORTUGUESE • 1600 ENGLISH AND THE DUTCH CHALLENGE PORTUGAL. • DUTCH AND ENGLISH FORM EAST INDIA COMPANIES. • THREE POWERS OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY. • 1. MINT $ • 2. MAKE TREATIES • 3. RAISE ARMIES • DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY DRIVES OUT ENGLISH, THUS GIVING THE DUTCH CONTROL OF THE SPICE ISLANDS.

    12. CHINA REJECTS EUROPEAN OUTREACH • MING DYNASTY(1368-1644) • VASSALS FROM NEIGHBORING STATES PAID TRIBUTE TO CHINA AND THEY EXPECTED PORT. TO DO THE SAME. • TRIBUTE: A PAYMENT BY ONE TO ANOTHER TO ACKNOWLEDGE SUBMISSION. • THE RISE OF THE MING: • HONGWU: COMMANDED THE REBEL ARMY THAT DROVE THE MONGELS OUT OF CHINA.

    13. HONGWU’S AG. REFORMS: • 1. INCREASED RICE PRODUCTION • 2. IMPROVED IRRIGATION • 3. INTRO. FISH FARMING • 4. INTRO. COMMERCIAL CROPS (COTTON, SUGAR) • HONGWU RESTORED CONFUCIAN MORAL STANDARDS AND MERIT BASED CIVIL SERVICE EXAMS. • HONGWU BECAME A TYRANT AT THE END OF HIS REIGN. • YONGLO,HONGWU’S SON, WON THE STRUGGLE FOR POWER AFTER HW DEATH. • YONGLO LAUNCHED ZHENG HE ON VOYAGES TO EXPLORE NEW LANDS.

    14. VOYAGES OF ZHENG HE • ZHENG HE: MUSLIM ADMIRAL THAT LED CHINESE EXPLORATION. • YONGLO WANTED TO EXPRESS CHINA’S SUPERIORITY THRU VOYAGES. • 1. LARGE SHIPS AND FLEETS • 2. DISTRIBUTED GIFTS.

    15. MING RELATIONS W/ FOREIGN COUNTRIES • TRADE POLICY: • GOV’T ONLY TO CONDUCT FOREIGN TRADE • FOREIGN TRADE IN ONLY THREE PORTS • SMUGGLING OF SILK AND PORCELAIN WAS A MAJOR PROBLEM. • 2 MAIN REASONS CHINA DIDN’T BECOME INDUSTRIALIZED: • 1. IDEA OF COMMERCE OFFENDED CONFUCIOUS BELIEFS • 2. CHINESE ECONOMIC POLICIES FAVORED AG.

    16. MING RELATIONS W/ FOREIGN COUNTRIES • MATTEO RICCI: ITALIAN JESUIT THAT WAS THE FIRST CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY TO CHINA.

    17. QING DYNASTY • 3 REASONS THE MING DYNASTY FELL. • 1. INEFFECTIVE RULERS • 2. CORRUPT OFFICIALS • 3. GOV’T OUT OF MONEY • MANCHUS: PEOPLE FROM MANCHURIA THAT INVADED CHINA AND TOOK OVER THE MING DYNASTY. • QING DYNASTY: CHINESE NAME FOR MANCHUS ; RULED 260 YRS.

    18. CHINA UNDER QING DYNASTY • MANY CHINESE REBELLED AGAINST NON-CHINESE RULERS. • GOV’T FORCED MEN TO WEAR THEIR HAIR IN PIGTAILS TO SHOW SUBMISSION. • 2 RULERS THAT CONTRIBUTED TO MANCHU RULE: • 1. KANGXI: B/C EMPOROR IN 1661 AND RULED FOR 60 YRS. • REDUCED GOV’T SPENDING • LOWERED TAXES • 2. QIAN-LONG: KANGXI’S GRANDSON • RULED CHINA TO ITS GREATEST SIZE AND PROSPERITY.

    19. KANGXI QIAN-LONG

    20. MANCHU’S CONTINUE A POLICY OF ISOLATION • TO TRADE YOU HAD TO GO TO A PARTICULAR PORT AND PAY TRIBUTE. • DUTCH TRADED TO CHINA B/C THEY PAID TRIBUTE AND PERFORMED KOWTOW. • BRITISH WANTED TO TRADE W/ CHINA. • SENT GEN. MACARTNEY W/ A LETTER FROM GEORGE III TO QIAN-LONG. • MACARTNEY REFUSED TO KOWTOW AND CHINA REFUSED TO TRADE.

    21. POPULATION DOUBLED • FAMILY AND THE ROLE OF WOMEN: • CHINESE FAVORED SONS OVER DAUGHTERS. • ONLY SONS COULD CARRY ON VITAL RELIGIOUS RITUALS. • SON COULD HELP PARENTS FARM. • MANY FEMALE INFANTS WERE KILLED • WOMAN’S DUTIES: • 1. WORK IN FIELDS • 2. SUPERVISE CHILD’S ED. • 3. MANAGE FINANCES • 2/3 OF CHINESE WOMEN PRACTICED FOOT BINDING.

    22. FOOT BINDING

    23. FOOT BINDING

    24. JAPAN LIMITS WESTERN CONTACTS • 1467 CIVIL WAR SHATTERED JAPAN’S FUEDAL SYSTEM. • LOCAL LORDS RULE: • SENGOKU: VIOLENT PERIOD OF WARRING STATES IN JAPAN FROM 1467-1568. • DAIMYO: WARRIOR CHIEFTONS IN A NEW JAPANESE FUEDALISM. • NEW LEADERS RESTORE ORDER: • ODA NOBUNAGA: AMBITIOUS DAIMYO THAT DEFEATED HIS RIVALS AND TOOK KYOTO. • HE WAS NOT ABLE TO UNIFY JAPAN. • COMMITTED SUPPUKA( SUICIDE ).

    25. CONT’D • TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI: NOB. BEST GENERAL; ASSUMED LEADERSHIP AFTER NOB. DEATH. • TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE: UNITES JAPAN. • TOKUGAWA IEYASU: COMPLETED UNIFICATION OF JAPAN; MOVED CAPITAL TO EDO;FOUNDED TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE. • TOKUGAWA SOCIETY AND CULTURE: • SOCIAL HISTORY: • FARMERS FACED LARGE TAX BURDEN. • JAPAN SHIFTED FROM A RURAL SOCIETY TO AN URBAN SOCIETY.

    26. CONT’D • ART UNDER TOK. SHO. • KABUKI: DRAMA IN WHICH ACTORS PERFORMED SKITS ABOUT URBAN LIFE. • HAIKU: UNRHYMED JAPANESE POEM WHERE NATURE IS LINKED TO HUMAN NATURE. • CONTACT B/N EUROPE AND JAPAN: • AT FIRST, JAPAN WELCOMED EUROPEANS, BUT EUROPEANS SHORTLY WORE OUT THIER WELCOME. • PORTUGUESE SAILORS BROUGHT CLOCKS, GLASSES, TOBACCO, AND FIREARMS TO TRADE IN JAPAN.

    27. CONT’D • FRANCIS XAVIER: JESUIT WHO LED THE 1ST CHRISTIAN MISSION TO JAPAN. • THE CLOSED COUNTRY POLICY: • ALL CHRISTIANS WERE PERSECUTED. • ALL OUTSIDE TRADE WAS CUT OFF.