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Unit 5 - The Era of Good Feelings and the Age of Jackson APUSH Mrs. Baker. Antebellum Reform Movements. In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820 to 1860?. Religious Revivalism.

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In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820 to 1860?

Religious Revivalism

Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality

Education

Temperance

Abolitionism

Asylum & Penal Reform

Women’s Rights

the rise of popular religion
The Rise of Popular Religion

In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States.

-- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832

In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820 to 1860?

charles g finney 1792 1895
Charles G. Finney (1792 – 1895)

“The ranges of tents, the fires, reflecting light…; the candles and lamps illuminating the encampment; hundreds moving to and fro…;the preaching, praying, singing, and shouting,… like the sound of many waters, was enough to swallow up all the powers of contemplation.”

“Soul-shaking conversions”

charles g finney

Presbyterian minister

    • Started a series of revivalism which appealed to people’s emotions and fear of damnation.
      • Persuaded 1000s to publicly declare their revived faith.
    • Preached that all were free to be saved through faith and hard work.
      • Ideals appealed to the rising middle class.
  • Result of Finneyism:
    • Western NY became known as the “burned-over district”
Charles G. Finney
revival meeting
Revival Meeting:

“Hell-and-brimstone” revivals

revivalism in new york
Revivalism in New York

The “Burned-over-District”

the mormons the church of jesus christ of latter day saints
The Mormons:The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
  • 1823: Golden Tablets
  • 1830: Book of Mormon
  • 1844: Murdered in Carthage, IL

John Smith

(1805 – 1844)

the final leg of the trek
The Final Leg of the “Trek”
  • Traveled to the western frontier to escape persecution
    • Created dessert community
      • New Zion
    • Salt Lake City, Utah
  • Cooperative social organization helped Mormons prosper in the wilderness.

Brigham Young

(1801 – 1877)

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In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820 to 1860?

Religious Revivalism

Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality

Education

Temperance

Abolitionism

Asylum & Penal Reform

Women’s Rights

culture ideas the arts literature
Transcendentalism

Communal Experiments

Arts and Literature

Culture: Ideas, the Arts, & Literature
european romanticism

Romantic movement in art and literature

    • Stressed intuition and feelings, individual acts of heroism, and the study of nature.
  • Concurrently (1820 – 1860), romantic and idealistic themes were expressed by transcendentalists.
    • Small group of New England writers and reformers.
European Romanticism
transcendentalism european romanticism

Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning

“Transcend” the limits of intellect and all the emotion, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe

Transcendentalism:European Romanticism
transcendentalist thinking

Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof:

    • The infinite benevolence of God.
    • The infinite benevolence of nature.
    • The divinity of man.
  • They instinctively rejected all secular authority and the authority of organized churches and the Scriptures, of law, or of conventions
Transcendentalist Thinking
transcendentalism

Therefore, if man was divine, it would be wicked that he should be held in slavery, or his soul corrupted by superstition, or his mind clouded by ignorance!!

  • Thus, the role of the reformer was to restore man to that divinity which God had endowed them.
Transcendentalism
transcendentalist agenda

Give freedom to the slave.

  • Give well-being to the poor and the miserable.
  • Give learning to the ignorant.
  • Give health to the sick.
  • Give peace and justice to society.
Transcendentalist Agenda
intellectuals writers concord ma
Intellectuals/Writers:Concord, MA

Henry David Thoreau

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Resistance to Civil Disobedience

(1849)

Nature

(1832)

“The American Scholar”

(1837)

Self-Reliance

(1841)

Walden

(1854)

brooks farm transcendentalist community
Brooks Farm:Transcendentalist Community

George Ripley

(1802 – 1880)

Brook Farm

West Roxbury, MA

transcendentalist critic nathaniel hawthorne 1804 1864
Transcendentalist Critic:Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804 – 1864)
  • Their pursuit of the ideal led to a distorted view of human nature and possibilities:
    • The Blithedale Romance
  • One should accept the world as imperfect place:
    • Scarlett Letter
    • House of the Seven Gables
shakers mother ann lee 1736 1784

If you will take up your crosses against the works of generations, and follow Christ in theregeneration, God will cleanse you from allunrighteousness.

Remember the cries of those who are in need and trouble, that when you are in trouble, God may hear your cries.

If you improve in one talent, God will give you more.

Shakers:Mother Ann Lee (1736 – 1784)
shaker hymn
Shaker Hymn

'Tis the gift to be simple,

'Tis the gift to be free,'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be,And when we find ourselves in the place just right,'Twill be in the valley of love and delight.When true simplicity is gainedTo bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed,To turn, turn will be our delight,'Till by turning, turning we come round right.

robert owen 1771 1858 new harmony indiana
Robert Owen (1771 – 1858)New Harmony, Indiana

Utopian Socialist

“Village of Cooperation”

the oneida community new york 1848
The Oneida CommunityNew York, 1848
  • Millenarianism(Millerites)
    • The 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred.
  • Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past.
    • all residents married to each other.
    • Carefully regulated “free love.”

John Humphrey Noyes

(1811 – 1886)

slide34

Arts

and

Literature

issues themes addressed

Transcendentalist thinking

Westward expansion

American nationalism

Racism and Native Americans

Concern for political extremism

The price paid for progress and the advances of civilization

Issues & Themes addressed
antebellum american art
Antebellum American Art

The Hudson School

1820 - 1870

background

These artists captured the undiluted power of nature

  • Paint the nation’s most spectacular and undeveloped areas [the new Garden of Eden].
  • Nature was the best source of wisdom &fulfillment.
  • They created visual embodiments of the ideals of the Transcendentalists.
    • Painting is the vehicle through which the universal mind could reach the mind of mankind.
    • Art is the agent of moral & spiritual transformation.
Background
characteristics of the hudson river school

Paint grand, scenic vistas

Humans are an insignificant [even non-existent] part of the picture.

Experiment with affects of light on water and sky.

Symbol of the school = Broken Tree Stump

Characteristics of the Hudson River School

A new art for a new land.

slide46

Architecture

The Classical Styles of Greece & Rome

slide49

A new distinctively American literature was created during this time period.

    • Result of the new nationalistic pride and desire to read about America.
  • Influential Authors:
    • Transcendentalists
    • Washington Irving
    • James Fenimore Cooper
      • Leatherstocking Tales
        • The Last of the Mohicans
    • Nathaniel Hawthorne
      • The Scarlet Letter (1850)
    • Herman Melville
      • Moby Dick (1855)

Literature

temperance movement
Temperance Movement

American Temperance Society – 1826

“Demon Rum”!

Frances Willard

The Beecher Family

the drunkards s progress
“The Drunkards’s Progress”

From first drink to the grave, 1846

penitentiary reform mental hospitals
Penitentiary Reform:Mental Hospitals

Dorothea Dix

(1802 – 1887)

1821 = first penitentiary founded in Auburn, NY

educational reform

Massachusetts

    • Always at the forefront of public education reform
      • 1st state to establish tax support for local public schools.
  • BY 1860, every state offered free public education to whites
    • US had on of the highest literacy rates.
Educational Reform
horace mann 1796 1859
Horace Mann (1796 – 1859)

“Father of American Education”

  • Children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials
  • Children should be “molded” into a state of perfection
  • Discouraged corporal punishment
  • Established state teacher-training programs
moral education the mcguffey eclectic readers

Used religious parable to teach “American values”

  • Teach middle class morality and respect for order.
  • Teach “3 Rs” + “Protestant ethic”
    • Frugality
    • Hard Work
    • Sobriety
Moral Education:The McGuffey Eclectic Readers
women educators
Women Educators
  • 1837  she established Mt. Holyoke [So. Hadley, MA] as the first college for women
  • Troy, NY: Female Seminary
  • Curriculum: math, physics, history, geography
  • Trained female teachers

Emma Willard

(1787 – 1870)

Mary Lyons

(1797 – 1849)

antislavery movement
Antislavery Movement

Abolitionists

Gradualists

Immediatists

abolitionist movement

1816

    • American Colonization Society created
      • Gradual, voluntary emancipation
    • Create a free slave state
      • Liberia, West Africa
Abolitionist Movement

British Colonization Society symbol

american antislavery society
American Antislavery Society
  • William Lloyd Garrison
    • 1801 – 1879
  • Beliefs:
    • Slavery and Masonry undermined republican values
    • Immediate emancipation with NO compensation
    • Slavery was a moral, not economic, issue
the liberator
The Liberator
  • 1st publication: January 1, 1831
  • Marked the beginning of the radical abolitionist movement.
other white abolitionists
Other White Abolitionists

Lewis Tappan

Arthur Tappan

James Birney

  • Liberty Party – 1840
  • Ran for President in 1840 & 1844
black abolitionists
Black Abolitionists
  • David Walker
    • 1785 – 1830
  • Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World
    • 1829
  • Fight for freedom rather than wait to be set free by whites.
    • Defended violent rebellions by black against the sin of slavery

“They think because they hold us in their infernal chains of slavery, that we wish to be white, or of their color – but they are dreadfully deceived – we wish to be just as it please our Creator to have made us, and no avaricious and unmerciful wretches, have any business to make slaves of, or hold us in slavery.”

“There is great work for you to do… You have to prove to the Americans and the world that we are MEN, and not brutes, as we have been represented, and by millions treated. Remember, to let the aim of your labours among your brethren, and particularly the youths, be the dissemination of education and religion.”

frederick douglass 1817 1895
Frederick Douglass (1817 – 1895)

1845 The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass

1847 “The North Star”

sojourner truth 1787 1883 or isabella baumfree
Sojourner Truth (1787 – 1883)Or Isabella Baumfree

1850 The Narrative of Sojourner Truth

harriet tubman 1820 1913
Harriet Tubman (1820 – 1913)
  • Helped over 300 slaves to freedom.
  • $40,000 bounty on her head.
  • Served as a Union spy during the Civil War.
the underground railroad1

“Conductor” – leader of the escape

  • “Passengers” – escaping slaves
  • “Tracks” – routes
  • “Trains” – farm wagons transporting the escaping slaves
  • “Depots” – safe houses to rest/sleep
The Underground Railroad
separate spheres concepts

A woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a refuge from the cruel world outside).

  • Her role was to “civilize” her husband and family.
  • An 1830s MA minister:
“Separate Spheres” Concepts

“Cult of Domesticity”

The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!

early 19 th c women

Unable to vote.

Legal status of a minor.

Single  could own her own property.

Married  no control over her property or her children.

Could not initiate divorce.

Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission

Early 19th c. Women
cult of domesticity slavery
Cult of Domesticity = Slavery

The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society.

Lucy Stone

Angelina Grimke

Sarah Grimke

  • American Women’s Suffrage Assoc.
  • Edited Women’s Journal

Southern Abolitionists

the movement

1840 – split in the abolitionist movement over women’s role in it.

    • World Anti-Slavery Convention – London
The Movement

Seneca Falls Convention

Declaration of Sentiments –

1848

Lucretia

Mott

Elizabeth

Cady Stanton

slide81

In what ways did the Second Great Awakening and religion influence the reform movements of the period 1820 to 1860?

Religious Revivalism

Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality

Education

Temperance

Abolitionism

Asylum & Penal Reform

Women’s Rights