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Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed? PowerPoint Presentation
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Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed?

Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed?

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Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed?

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  1. Why was the Reform Act of 1867 passed?

  2. What were the factors favouring reform in the 1850s? Learning Objectives: • To understand why the attitude of politicians to reform changed. • To learn about the attempts to bring in a Reform Bill

  3. Cartoons • Cartoons are used a lot at AS and A2. • Look at the cartoon and work out what it is about. • Notice who the main characters are; what model of change do you think it portrays? • What do you think this tells us about why a Reform Act was passed in 1867?

  4. Dizzy wins • Cartoon was published on 25th May 1867. • The Liberals won the General Election of 1868. • The Conservatives won the General Election of 1874. • The Liberals won in 1880

  5. The 1850`s • Use Chapter 4 pages 49 -51 to work together on this task. • Take a section each to investigate. • When your section is complete share it with the rest of the group.

  6. Why was Parliament reform acceptable in the 1850s? • The Chartists had failed, Britain had not experienced a revolution in 1848 so to widen the franchise would be safe. Population was growing – the skilled working classes were becoming more prosperous, so the electorate had naturally increased from 700,000 to nearly 174 million in 1866 (based on £10 householder franchise in boroughs). If the working class were prevented from voting they might be driven towards the radicals. The party that introduced reform might gain an electoral advantage. • The Conservatives might be attracted by the need to win a General Election and stay in power. • Some working classes seen as respectable because they were not revolutionary, they had benefitted from an economic boom from 1843-1873. They increasingly wanted to accept the norms of society and not rebel against them. Many were becoming literate. They joined Trade Unions but these were also now respectable and started to have influence. They were patriotic, religious and loyal to the monarchy. They were sober, sensible and thrifty. • The Residuum were the unskilled, lower working classes, they did not share in this prosperity and were not seen as fit for the privilege of voting.

  7. Key Terms What do these mean? • Franchise • Literate • Thrifty • Residuum

  8. Key Terms What do these mean? • Franchise – the right to vote officially granted to a person by the Gov. • Literate – able to read and write. The economic boom had given more working classes advantages in education. • Thrifty - Using money and other resources carefully and not wastefully. • Residuum – unskilled working classes that would not be included in the extension of the franchise

  9. Find out about the Bill introduced in 1859:- • Why was it introduced ? • What were the terms of the Bill ? • Why did it fail ? Then • use pages 52-54 to find out what factors influenced reform in the 1860`s. Make a list !

  10. Why did reform come back on the agenda in 1860’s and why was the reform bill rejected? Learning Objectives: • To consolidate understanding of the reform bill of 1859 • To understood why Gladstone introduced a bill in 1866 and why it failed

  11. Homework Feedback1859 Bill • Why was it introduced ? • What were the terms of the Bill ? • Why did it fail ? What factors influenced reform in the 1860`s:

  12. 1859 Bill • Why was it introduced ? The idea of looking at reform from the idea of party advantage had now begun. Disraeli however felt that the Whigs had constructed a bill which suited them in 1832 and that the Conservatives were now entitled to do the same. • What were the terms of the Bill ? £10 borough franchise extended to counties, extension of borough boundaries to include more rural voters, £20 lodger vote, a second vote to those earning £10+ a year from investments or had £60 savings (fancy franchise). • Why did it fail ? Russell proposed a resolution (expression of opinion in HofC which does not have full weight of law) calling for an extension to the borough votes and it passed – this would benefit the Liberals and Derby resigned in protest meaning the Liberals formed a minority gov. What factors influenced reform in the 1860`s: • advances of the skilled, urban working class • Gladstone’s personal support for reform • Impact from abroad – American Civil War and visit from Garibaldi • Role of trade unions and economic problems

  13. Key Terms

  14. Key Terms

  15. Can you explain these reasons for reform in more detail? • Disraeli wanted to score points off Gladstone • The Conservatives needed to pass reform if they were ever going to stay in power • Disraeli wanted to pacify the Radicals

  16. The 1866 BillUsing the chapter: “A Leap in the dark”

  17. The 1866 Bill

  18. Opportunities for Derby and Disraeli • Who was the Prime Minister? • Why was Disraeli in charge? • What 3 things persuaded D & D to go for reform ?

  19. “A Leap in the dark”Can you understand it?

  20. Why did Disraeli pass the 1867 Act? Learning Objectives: • To understand the Reform Bill of 1867 • To understand why Disraeli introduced the 1867 Act – focussing on high/low politics

  21. Look carefully at the images • Can you identify them all? • Can you give any details about the characters?

  22. The Proposals Use the 2 chapters (pages 57-65 in Chapter 4) A Leap in the Dark (pages 343 – 344) Find out:- • What the original proposals from Disraeli were? Page 57/343-4 • What the final terms of the Act were? Page 58/343-4 • Why did it change? Page 58/345-6 • What difference did it make? Impact? Page 59-65/346+

  23. Original Proposals • To give the vote to all male householders in the boroughs. (This would enfranchise the skilled working classes in the towns) • They had to pay rates personally (so not pay it as part of their rent) • They had to have 2 year residence qualification (so miss out workmen who travelled a lot) • Fancy Franchises, giving votes to those who had £50 in the bank. The number of new voters would be 400,000

  24. Final Terms • Only 1 year residence qualification needed • As well as a householder franchise, a £10 lodger franchise. • Vote given to Compound Householders (those who paid rates & rent to a landlord) • No Fancy Franchises Number of new voters – about 1,100,000

  25. Why Change? • Disraeli accepted amendments from Radicals & Liberals (but not from Gladstone !) – gain party advantage • To stop reform agitation • They had a minority government so needed support from the Liberals in order to get the Bill through Parliament Number of new voters – about 1,100,000

  26. What difference did it make? Impact? • The old corrupt system took a severe blow (there were further reforms) • Party Organisation improved • The two party system – Liberals and Conservatives were now two clearly established groups and this ended the confusion of politics in 1850s and 60s.

  27. Disraeli`s motives Use the sheet called Activity2.1 • Find evidence for tactics that he used to get the bill passed? • What evidence is there for the High Politics model? • Is there any evidence for the Low Politics model? • Is there any evidence that Disraeli did not plan his strategy but was just an opportunist?

  28. High or Low Politics ? Read pages 345-346 in A Leap in the Dark. • What side does this chapter come down on – High or Low Politics ?

  29. Using the A3 complete single bubble showing the causes of reform in 1867 Why did Parliamentary reform become an issue?

  30. Homework Feedback Pressure Groups for Reform • Look at the 2 organisations – The Reform League and the Reform Union • What are the differences between them?

  31. Homework FeedbackPressure Groups

  32. Read pages 59-60 and find evidence of High and Low Politics models for this Act.Read pages 62-63 and find evidence of High / Low politics

  33. Why did Disraeli pass the 1867 Act? Learning Objectives: • To consolidate understanding of why 1867 was passed, focussing on high or low politics • To practice interpretations of cartoons

  34. Redistribution Redistribution • What does this mean? • Write your own answer explaining what this was. • Look at page 348 in A Leap in the Dark; read it carefully. Why did Derby and Disraeli think it was a “safety net”? • High or Low politics? Safety Net It allowed them to extend the franchise whilst ensuring the mass of voters were in the counties and Conservative voters. Of the 52 seats reallocated 25 went to counties. High or Low? High – party advantage

  35. High Politics? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3hhq-Esllc&feature=related

  36. Cartoons • Read extract A • What are the 3 main interpretations of events around 1867 ? • Look at Extract B; label all the people and explain the cartoon • Do the same for extract C

  37. High /Low Politics • Use the printed sheet to identify which points are High or Low politics; if they are neither, label them as “other” • Decide which model you are going with for the passing of 1867

  38. 1867 • Can you explain the motives for the Bill and the content of it? • Do you think it was passed because of High or Low politics?

  39. To summarise our learning on 1867 • Complete the fishbone diagram to show causes of 1867. • Remember to start with any causes you can think of. • Use the extra 2 chapters to help if you want extra information • Then categorise those causes into 4 groups. • Display those on the fishbone

  40. Cause category A Cause category B Key skill: classification of causes Cause 1 Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 2 1867 Reform Act Cause 2 Cause 2 Cause category C Cause category D Cause 1 Cause 1

  41. Low Politics High Politics Key skill: classification of causes Political advantage Reform Union competition Reform League 1867 Reform Act Democracy was coming Cholera epidemic Inevitability Social /economic factors Working classes deserved it

  42. How did the 1867 Act affect the development of political parties? Learning Objectives: • To learn how the 1867 Act affected the Liberal and Conservative parties • To make a judgement as to which party gained most

  43. Party Politics • 1868 – Liberals win (large majority) • 1874 – Conservatives win • 1880 – Liberals win (large majority) Can you remember what we said about the pattern of elections? What is significant? The electorate have the final say. • 1868 – Disraeli resigned – showed electorate had the final say! • 1880 – 84% of seats contested – much higher than previously • 1880 – First national election campaign (Gladstone very significant) • 1880 – electorate given a clear choice – parties now put forward clear manifesto’s

  44. Party Organisation • Central Office set up by Conservatives in 1870 • Demands on MP’s increased • Party discipline became tighter • Longer Parliamentary sessions – more pressure to attend debates • 1867 – National Union of Conservative Constituency Association – recognition that success in boroughs would mean efficiency at constituency level. • Needed propaganda and persuasion • Needed to make sure known supporters were registered as voters – difficult as franchise qualification was more open to challenge • Party agents were very important • Needed to project their policies – used speakers like Bright and Gladstone to do this • Disraeli issued a manifesto and Gladstone made promises on taxes • Beginning of the 2 party system with clear personalities, end to confusion over Whig/Liberal • Electorate were asked to consider party policies when casting votes • Liberal registration Association set up 1860 drew up lists of candidates.

  45. Party Organisation How does registration affect organisation? • Party agents had to ensure that their voters were placed on the register So how did parties know who their voters were?

  46. Party Organisation Voters had to be persuaded to vote for a particular party by :- • Reforms that appealed to the working classes, such as better housing, public health, trade unions. • Use of propaganda / speeches around the country • Using Party Agents to help a candidate win an election • Issuing a manifesto which made promises

  47. Terms Liberal Caucus • Chamberlain`s strategy to counter the use of 2 votes for 3 members. • Liberal voters were told which 2 candidates to vote for – so Conservatives were squeezed out • Some boroughs had 3 MPs; so voters there had 2 votes. They could vote for 1 candidate using 2 votes, or 2 candidates using 1 vote each. Class-consciousness • Awareness of one`s own identity and class. How does this affect the way you might vote? Temperance • To give up alcohol- especially working men Why did they want to do this ?

  48. Gaining support – who wins ?

  49. Support for Conservatives Can you explain each of these? • Deference • Patriotism • Dislike of foreigners • Liberal Weaknesses • National Party