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How much do you know about the Middle East???. 1) Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East? a. France and England b. Saudi Arabia c. The United Nations d. The United States. 2) What language is spoken in Iran? A. English B. French C. Farsi D. Sufi.
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How much do you know about the Middle East??? • 1)Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East? • a. France and England • b. Saudi Arabia • c. The United Nations • d. The United States
2) What language is spoken in Iran? • A. English • B. French • C. Farsi • D. Sufi
3) What are the two main religious sects in Islam? ___________________&___________________. 4) What is the most populous Islamic country in the world? a. Egypt b. Indonesia c. Iran d. Saudi Arabia
5) Which of following is Iraq? D C A C D A B B
How much do you know about the middle east? • Answers!! • 1. A - France & England • 2. C - Farsi • 3. Sunni & Shiite • 4. B – Indonesia (196 million people) • 5. C
Iran-Iraq War • Iraq Basics – Who? Ethnic Groups • Arabs = 2/3 of population • Kurds = 1/3 of population • Own Language & customs • Want their own state • Brutally suppressed in Iraq
Iran-Iraq War • Iraq Basics Who? Religion • Shiite – 3/5 of population: Believe Muslim leader should be a direct descendant of Mohammed • Sunni – 2/5 of population (Saddam Hussein): Believe leader should be a respected leader of the community • Main difference is over who should lead the Muslim community!!!
Iran-Iraq War • Baath Party = Party of Saddam Hussein • What does it do? • Secular (non-religious) Gov’t. • Uses oil money for government projects • Hussein begins to eliminate opponents
Iran-Iraq War • What started the war? • Border disputes • Fear of Shiites (majority in Iraq) rebelling against Saddam (Sunni) – Why? • Iranian Revolution & the rise of Ayatollah Khomeini (Iran=almost all Shiite)
Iran-Iraq War Timeline • Iraq’s Goals: • Remove Iran’s leaders (shiite) • Gain oil and land • Make Saddam a hero
Iran-Iraq War Timeline • September 22, 1980 Saddam Hussein invaded Iran and took a key waterway into the Persian Gulf • both sides attacked oil fields, attacked tankers, and set mines in the Persian Gulf • U.S. sent warships to protect oil tankers • U.S. ($200 mil. in arms) supported Iraq – Why?
Iran-Iraq War Timeline • Long, brutal war (about 8 years), including the use of chemical weapons • more than a million combined deaths • Results in a Stalemate, UN cease-fire in 1988 • U.S. puts sanctions on Iraq and decreases its support b/c of human rights violations
Persian Gulf War • Why??? • Iraq’s claim to land in Kuwait • Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil • Hussein thought no one would stop him
The Conflict • On August 2, 1990 the country of Iraq invaded and occupied the tiny country of Kuwait over a “supposed” dispute over oil.
United States Responds • President George H.W. Bush declared that the invasion “would not stand.” • Had full UN support!!!
United States Responds • Operation Desert Shield: American troops sent to protect Saudi Arabia • Operation Desert Storm: US bombs Iraqi military & select targets to LIBERATE KUWAIT!!!
Strategy • Six weeks of air attacks on strategic targets in Kuwait and Baghdad (Iraqi capital) to soften up Iraqi military • Ground forces move in to push Iraqi military out of Kuwait
Outcome • American forces led by Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf would eventually annihilate the Iraqi forces with the world’s most advanced weapons.
Results • Iraq accepts border with Kuwait, surrenders all WMDs, destroys all WMD production capability • Oil for Food Program – Iraq can sell oil in exchange for food • Saddam represses Kurds & Shiites after the war – No Fly Zones
Ground War Assessment • Operation Desert Storm (ground) lasted only 100 hours. • ***Air Assault lasted 6 weeks leading up to the ground invasion • The Iraqi forces were totally destroyed by the American led Coalition forces. • 100,000 Iraqis killed; 148 Americans
Air Support • American air superiority gave the coalition forces a huge advantage in this conflict. • American aircraft completed decimated Saddam Huessien’s forces. • Air superiority included: bombers, attack helicopters, fighter jets and other highly advanced weapons.
F-117a stealth • Designed to be virtually invisible to radar. • Nicknamed the “Wobblin Goblin” because of bumpy ride and outlandish appearance • Primary weapon (2,000 pound laser - guided bombs) • Targets in Gulf War included Iraqi command and control installations and also chemical and nuclear production and storage facilities.
B-52 Stratofortress • US Airforce’s long range, large payload multi-role bomber. • Nicknamed BUFF - Big Ugly Fat Fellow • Can carry more than 70,000 lbs of bombs - nuclear, laser guided and conventional. • In Operation Desert Storm, B-52s were used to conduct round-the-clock carpet bombing attacks against Iraqi troop concentrations and defenses. In addition to high-explosive bombs, the B-52s saturated Iraqi positions with anti-personnel and anti-armor bombs.
Tomahawk cruise missile • Desert Storm was the first combat test of the cruise missile system. Highly successful. • In the war, Tomahawks were used to destroy surface-to-air missile sites, command and control centers, electrical power facilities and were credited with the destruction of Iraq's presidential palace. • Carry 1000 lbs computer or laser guided missiles - 550 miles per hour - up to 1500 miles
AH - 64 apache • Specifically designed for its attack role. It is heavily armored and is hard to kill. • Uses “Hellfire” anti-tank missiles that have range of 3.7 miles. Top speed 184 miles an hour. • 30 mm laser directed gun also used - attached to pilot’s helmet; targeting information seen • Primary use in Gulf was to destroy tanks and armored vehicles - highly effective weapon.