How much do you know about the Middle East??? • 1)Who created most of the borders and countries of the Middle East? • a. France and England • b. Saudi Arabia • c. The United Nations • d. The United States
2) What language is spoken in Iran? • A. English • B. French • C. Farsi • D. Sufi
3) What are the two main religious sects in Islam? ___________________&___________________. 4) What is the most populous Islamic country in the world? a. Egypt b. Indonesia c. Iran d. Saudi Arabia
5) Which of following is Iraq? D C A C D A B B
How much do you know about the middle east? • Answers!! • 1. A - France & England • 2. C - Farsi • 3. Sunni & Shiite • 4. B – Indonesia (196 million people) • 5. C
Iran-Iraq War • Iraq Basics – Who? Ethnic Groups • Arabs = 2/3 of population • Kurds = 1/3 of population • Own Language & customs • Want their own state • Brutally suppressed in Iraq
Iran-Iraq War • Iraq Basics Who? Religion • Shiite – 3/5 of population: Believe Muslim leader should be a direct descendant of Mohammed • Sunni – 2/5 of population (Saddam Hussein): Believe leader should be a respected leader of the community • Main difference is over who should lead the Muslim community!!!
Iran-Iraq War • Baath Party = Party of Saddam Hussein • What does it do? • Secular (non-religious) Gov’t. • Uses oil money for government projects • Hussein begins to eliminate opponents
Iran-Iraq War • What started the war? • Border disputes • Fear of Shiites (majority in Iraq) rebelling against Saddam (Sunni) – Why? • Iranian Revolution & the rise of Ayatollah Khomeini (Iran=almost all Shiite)
Iran-Iraq War Timeline • Iraq’s Goals: • Remove Iran’s leaders (shiite) • Gain oil and land • Make Saddam a hero
Iran-Iraq War Timeline • September 22, 1980 Saddam Hussein invaded Iran and took a key waterway into the Persian Gulf • both sides attacked oil fields, attacked tankers, and set mines in the Persian Gulf • U.S. sent warships to protect oil tankers • U.S. ($200 mil. in arms) supported Iraq – Why?
Iran-Iraq War Timeline • Long, brutal war (about 8 years), including the use of chemical weapons • more than a million combined deaths • Results in a Stalemate, UN cease-fire in 1988 • U.S. puts sanctions on Iraq and decreases its support b/c of human rights violations
Persian Gulf War • Why??? • Iraq’s claim to land in Kuwait • Claimed Kuwait was stealing oil • Hussein thought no one would stop him
The Conflict • On August 2, 1990 the country of Iraq invaded and occupied the tiny country of Kuwait over a “supposed” dispute over oil.
United States Responds • President George H.W. Bush declared that the invasion “would not stand.” • Had full UN support!!!
United States Responds • Operation Desert Shield: American troops sent to protect Saudi Arabia • Operation Desert Storm: US bombs Iraqi military & select targets to LIBERATE KUWAIT!!!
Strategy • Six weeks of air attacks on strategic targets in Kuwait and Baghdad (Iraqi capital) to soften up Iraqi military • Ground forces move in to push Iraqi military out of Kuwait
Outcome • American forces led by Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf would eventually annihilate the Iraqi forces with the world’s most advanced weapons.
Results • Iraq accepts border with Kuwait, surrenders all WMDs, destroys all WMD production capability • Oil for Food Program – Iraq can sell oil in exchange for food • Saddam represses Kurds & Shiites after the war – No Fly Zones
Ground War Assessment • Operation Desert Storm (ground) lasted only 100 hours. • ***Air Assault lasted 6 weeks leading up to the ground invasion • The Iraqi forces were totally destroyed by the American led Coalition forces. • 100,000 Iraqis killed; 148 Americans
Air Support • American air superiority gave the coalition forces a huge advantage in this conflict. • American aircraft completed decimated Saddam Huessien’s forces. • Air superiority included: bombers, attack helicopters, fighter jets and other highly advanced weapons.
F-117a stealth • Designed to be virtually invisible to radar. • Nicknamed the “Wobblin Goblin” because of bumpy ride and outlandish appearance • Primary weapon (2,000 pound laser - guided bombs) • Targets in Gulf War included Iraqi command and control installations and also chemical and nuclear production and storage facilities.
B-52 Stratofortress • US Airforce’s long range, large payload multi-role bomber. • Nicknamed BUFF - Big Ugly Fat Fellow • Can carry more than 70,000 lbs of bombs - nuclear, laser guided and conventional. • In Operation Desert Storm, B-52s were used to conduct round-the-clock carpet bombing attacks against Iraqi troop concentrations and defenses. In addition to high-explosive bombs, the B-52s saturated Iraqi positions with anti-personnel and anti-armor bombs.
Tomahawk cruise missile • Desert Storm was the first combat test of the cruise missile system. Highly successful. • In the war, Tomahawks were used to destroy surface-to-air missile sites, command and control centers, electrical power facilities and were credited with the destruction of Iraq's presidential palace. • Carry 1000 lbs computer or laser guided missiles - 550 miles per hour - up to 1500 miles
AH - 64 apache • Specifically designed for its attack role. It is heavily armored and is hard to kill. • Uses “Hellfire” anti-tank missiles that have range of 3.7 miles. Top speed 184 miles an hour. • 30 mm laser directed gun also used - attached to pilot’s helmet; targeting information seen • Primary use in Gulf was to destroy tanks and armored vehicles - highly effective weapon.