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EAST ASIA (chapter 9)

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  1. EAST ASIA(chapter 9)

  2. EAST ASIA

  3. MAJOR GEOGRAPHIC QUALITIES OF EAST ASIA • WORLD’S MOST POPULOUS REALM • ONE OF THE WORLD’S EARLIEST CULTURE HEARTHS • INTENSIFYING REGIONAL DISPARITIES • POPULATION CONCENTRATIONS IN THE EAST, SITUATED IN RIVER BASINS

  4. PHYSIOGRAPHY OF EAST ASIA

  5. REGIONS OF THE REALM • CHINA PROPER • XIZANG (TIBET) • XINJIANG • MONGOLIA • JAKOTA TRIANGLE

  6. REGIONS OF THE REALM • CHINA PROPER- EASTERN HALF; THE CORE • XIZANG (TIBET)- TALL MOUNTAINS AND HIGH PLATEAUS; SPARSELY POPULATED • XINJIANG- VAST DESERT BASIN AND MOUNTAIN RIMS; A CULTURAL CONTACT ZONE • MONGOLIA- A DESERT, BUFFER STATE • THE JAKOTA TRIANGLE • JAPAN, SOUTH KOREA, TAIWAN • RAPID ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

  7. E A S T A S I A

  8. XIZANG (TIBET) • A HARSH PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT • SPARSELY POPULATED • CAME UNDER CHINESE CONTROL DURING THE MANCHU DYNASTY IN 1720 • BUDDHISM, THE DALAI LAMA, AND MONASTERIES • FORMALLY ANNEXED IN 1965 AND ADMINISTERED AS AN AUTONOMOUS REGION

  9. XINJIANG • COMPRISES ONE-SIXTH OF CHINA’S TOTAL LAND AREA • A REGION OF HIGH MOUNTAINS AND BASINS • CHINESE ONLY ACCOUNT FOR 40% OF THE POPULATION • MUSLIM UYGHURS ACCOUNT FOR HALF OF THE POPULATION • BOASTS EXTENSIVE RESERVES OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS • UNRESOLVED BOUNDARY DISPUTES

  10. HONG KONG • MEANS “FRAGRANT HARBOR”- AN EXCELLENT DEEP WATER PORT • BOOMED DURING THE KOREAN WAR • 7 MILLION PEOPLE WITHIN 400 SQ MILES • ECONOMY IS LARGER THAN HALF OF THE WORLD’S COUNTRIES • 1 JULY 1997- BRITISH TRANSFERRED CONTROL TO CHINA • HONG KONG RENAMED XIANGGANG

  11. MONGOLIA • STEPPE AND DESERT PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT • SPARSELY POPULATED WITH AN ESTIMATED 2.6 MILLION INHABITANTS • PART OF THE CHINESE EMPIRE FROM LATE 1600s UNTIL 1911 • BECAME A PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC IN THE 1920s • FUNCTIONS AS A BUFFER STATE, wedged btw the former USSR (Russia) and China. • ECONOMY IS FOCUSED ON HERDING AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS

  12. PHYSIOGRAPHY OF CHINA • TOTAL AREA OF CHINA IS ABOUT 3.6 MILLION SQ MI • LONGITUDINAL EXTENT IS COMPARABLE TO THE U.S.; LATITUDINAL RANGE FROM NORTHERN QUEBEC TO CENTRAL CARIBBEAN • BORDERED (SURROUNDED) BY OCEAN, HIGH MOUNTAINS, STEPPE COUNTRY, AND DESERT • VAST AND VARIED TOPOGRAPHY

  13. CLIMATE COMPARISON INCLUDES THE LARGEST AREA OF HIGHLAND CLIMATE IN THE WORLD

  14. Cold Warm

  15. Dry Wet

  16. COLONIAL SPHERES

  17. ETHNOLINGUISTIC AREAS

  18. CHINESE PERSPECTIVES • ONE OF THE WORLD’S GREAT CULTURE HEARTHS • CONTINUOUS CIVILIZATION FOR OVER 4,000 YEARS • VIEW OF CHINA AS THE CENTER OF THE CIVILIZED WORLD • EASTERN VS WESTERN BIAS – Romans, Greeks vs. Chinese • USED TO BE INWARD LOOKING/CLOSED SOCIETY

  19. KONGFUZI (CONFUCIUS) • CHINA’S MOST INFLUENTIAL PHILOSOPHER AND TEACHER, 551- 479 BC • CONFUCIANISM TOOK ON SPIRITUAL PROPORTIONS AFTER HIS DEATH • FOCUSED ON THE SUFFERING OF ORDINARY PEOPLE DURING THE ZHOU DYNASTY • TEACHINGS HAVE DOMINATED CHINESE LIFE AND THOUGHT FOR MORE THAN 20 CENTURIES

  20. EXTRATERRITORIALITY • Page 469 • A DOCTRINE OF EUROPEAN INTERNATIONAL LAW (the basis of “Diplomatic Immunity”). • EMPLOYED IN CHINA DURING THE LATE 1800s • AFFORDED IMMUNITY FROM LOCAL JURISDICTION • CONSTITUTED AN EROSION OF CHINESE SOVEREIGNTY • DISTINCT ENCLAVES EVOLVED

  21. CHINA’S POPULATION • 1.323 BILLION; 118 MALES /100 FEMALES • ANNUAL NATURAL INCREASE 0.6% (1970s - 3%) • DOUBLING TIME: 100 YEARS • LIFE EXPECTANCY: 70 Years (males), 73 Years (females) • ARITHMETIC DENSITY: 358 PEOPLE/SQ MI • PHYSIOLOGICAL DENSITY: 3,612 PEOPLE/SQ MI • ONLY 10% OF THE LAND IS ARABLE AND 69% OF THE POPULATION LIVES ON THIS LAND • DISTRIBUTION: WESTERN 2/3s IS SPARSELY POPULATED (see next slide)

  22. POPULATION DENSITY

  23. CHINA’S LARGE CITIES • BEIJING (CAPITAL) • SHANGHI (LARGEST CITY) • TIANJIN (PORT CITY) • CHONGQUING (INTERIOR RIVER PORT) ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN CHINA: • SERIOUS ENERGY SHORTAGE • TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE POORLY DEVELOPED • ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

  24. URBAN CHINA • 41% URBANIZED • LARGEST CITIES ARE INSIGNIFICANT ON A GLOBAL SCALE (see Page 459) • URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS • AIR POLLUTION • CONGESTION • WATER POLLUTION

  25. REORGANIZATION UNDER COMMUNISM • 1950s-1976 COMMUNIST REGIME LAUNCHED MASSIVE PROGRAMS OF RECONSTRUCTION AND REFORM • BASED ON THE SOVIET MODEL • LAND WAS EXPROPRIATED, AND FARMING WAS COLLECTIVIZED • INDUSTRIES WERE REORGANIZED AS STATE-OWNED COMMUNAL ENTERPRISES • EMPHASIS ON “HEAVY INDUSTRY” • DRAMATIC SOCIAL CHANGES – EDUCATION, RELIGION, POPULATION GROWTH

  26. AGRICULTURAL REGIONS

  27. ENERGY RESOURCES

  28. SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES • LOCATION WAS PRIME CONSIDERATION – along the coast (pg 492) INVESTOR INCENTIVES LIKE: • LOW TAXES • EASING OF IMPORT AND EXPORT REGULATIONS • SIMPLIFIED LAND LEASES • HIRING OF CONTRACT LABOR PERMITTED • PRODUCTS MAY BE SOLD IN FOREIGN MARKETS AND IN CHINA (UNDER CERTAIN RESTRICTIONS)

  29. CHINA’S ECONOMIC ZONES

  30. THE JAKOTA TRIANGLE • CHARACTERISTICS • Great cities • Enormous consumption of raw materials • State-of-the-art industries • Voluminous exports • Global links • Trade surpluses • Rapid development

  31. JAPAN • Transportation • Cities

  32. JAPAN’S CORE AREA

  33. MEIJI RESTORATION • 1868 Rebellion brought in reformers • Reinstated the emperor and began to transform Japan from a Feudal society with pre-machine age technology to an industrial power • Adopted aspects of the British model. See movie “The Last Samurai”. • Launched a systematic study of the industrialized world • Focus was on industrialization and education system

  34. EXPANSIONIST JAPAN • Taiwan 1895 • Korea 1910 • Pacific Islands Post WW I • Manchuria 1931 • China 1937 • Hong Kong 1939 • Southeast Asia 1941 • 1945 –1952: Allied Occupation

  35. POPULATION COMPARISONS MILLIONS

  36. MALE FEMALE AGE MALE FEMALE 70+ 60-69 50-59 40-49 30-39 30 15 0 15 30 20-29 10-19 Percent of Population 0-9 20 10 0 10 20 Percent of Population POPULATION PROFILES JAPAN INDIA

  37. DECLINING JAPANESE POPULATION • Population: 127.9 million • Birth rate: 9 births/1,000 • Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 • Growth rate: 0.1% • Life expectancy: 78 yrs (M), 85 yrs (F) • Urbanization: 78%

  38. KOREA

  39. KOREA • The size of Idaho but with a population of 73 million (both Koreas) • Turbulent political history • Was a dependency of China • Was a colony of Japan • Divided into 2 Koreas along the 38th parallel by Allied Powers > WW II (1945) • Cease-fire line established in1953

  40. NORTH-SOUTH CONTRASTS • NORTH KOREA • 55% of the land, 1/3 of the population, extremely rural • Antiquated state enterprises • Inefficient, non-productive agriculture • Limited trade – mainly with former Soviet Union and China • SOUTH KOREA • 45% of the land, 2/3s of the population, highly urbanized • Modern factories • Intensive, increasingly mechanized agriculture • Extensive trade –US, Japan, and Western Europe

  41. POPULATION 23,100,000 48,700,000 GNP (BILLIONS) $ 21.3 $ 508.3 GNP/CAPITA $ 920 $ 17,930 AGRICULTURE RESTRICTIVE GOOD (as % of GNP) 25 % 8 % (% work force) 36 % 21 % THE KOREAS

  42. LAND USE PATTERNS Rugged Mountains Industrial Area Main Rice Producing Secondary Rice Producing Free Trade Zone

  43. SEOUL • Capital of Korea (late 1300s - early 1900s) • 9.6 million people • Located in the northwest corner of South Korea • The urban-industrial center • Textiles, clothing, footwear, electronic goods

  44. TAIWAN

  45. TAIWAN, ROC • Historical background: • A Chinese province for centuries • Colonized by Japan in 1895 • Returned to China > WWII • 1949 – Chinese Nationalists (supported by the US) fled from the mainland and established the Republic of China (ROC), NOT the same as the Peoples Rep. of China. • Territory - approximately 14,000 Square miles • Population – 22.8 million • 78% urbanized

  46. SOUTH KOREAKOREA1952 • TAIWAN CHINA1949 • HONG KONG CHINA1841 • SINGAPORE MALAYSIA1965 FOUR ECONOMIC TIGERS Date of Split Former State “TIGER”