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Critical Reflection; Practicing Public Scholarly Inquiry while Processing with Science, Technology & Society. Christine M. YUKECH C & I, Science Education, the University of Akron Akron, Ohio 44325, U.S. Motivation.

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Critical Reflection;Practicing Public Scholarly Inquiry while Processing with Science, Technology & Society

Christine M. YUKECHC & I, Science Education, the University of AkronAkron, Ohio 44325, U.S.



public scholarship
Public Scholarship
  • Any scholarly activity generating new knowledge through academic reflection on issues in community engagement
  • Public scholarship requires active thinking, reflection, and engagement with relevant theory
  • It addresses issues of public interest; and knowledge generated in the university as well as in the community by generating new knowledge through reflection and engagement with social theory
popular theories
  • These ideas are in line with the ideas of John Dewey (1850-1952) who was believed to be the most influential thinker in education in the last 100 years.. Dewey believed in learning by doing
  • Tools for building such social and practical scholarship are rooted in John Dewey's ideas and can build epistemologies in philosophies of postmodernism and American pragmatism
  • Pragmatism and critical thinking

Pragmatists do not make distinctions between knowing and doing or elitist thinkers at the top and workers at the bottom

They believe that knowing occurs as acts of doing

In this way individuals can adapt to the ever-changing society situations. This type of learning prepares the youth for social action and creates the ability for analysis and critical thinking

Returning to Our Roots: Post Structural and Post ModernismReturning to Our Roots: Post Structural and Post Modernism
  • The Carnegie Foundation wrote a report on the importance of stressing citizenship as we prepare graduates it included ideas of postmodernism and post structuralism
  • Ontology was described as the diffusion of modern communication and technology, an integration of nation-states into a global capitalist economy of post-Fordist accumulation, a variety of consumer goods in the market and accelerating consumption, the rise of identity politics and the celebration of difference and cultural diversity
  • Post structuralism refers to the epistemology questions that claim to be objective, value, value-free, neural, and essentially true..Science is founded on what philosophers have called the "correspondence theory of truth (”How do we know we know?" They argue that the world as we know it is constructed
  • Different perspectives such as post modernism, post positivism or logical positivism may have to shift paradigms to validate or falsify data to make objective evidence based reality…attempting to generate new knowledge, and work with communities as partners of new knowledge, with hope that this will have a profound effect on college students
french thinkers
French Thinkers
  • These thinkers' argue that language and meaning are much more related to our knowledge of understanding of our external world than social science has presented
  • Ideas of social construction of reality, the link to how and what we think are the key to how we know the world
  • These ideas are critical to public scholarship

We need to move away from past models if we are to find effective answers to social problems...The ontology is described as the diffusion of modern communication and technology, the integration of nation-states into a global capitalist economy

tools for building public scholarship inquiry
  • In relation to motivation for higher-order learning, Janet G. Donald, discussed orientations to learning and studying

Higher order learning goals help students take responsibility for their learning, that is to assume self control to self regulate

  • Criteria for student learning were the ability to analyze, and think critically.
  • Our homeless rates alone would point to the direction that we need to be reaching for connections between departments at universities and between neighborhoods and communities
  • We can reciprocate needs faster and create a starting place for curriculum and academics.
the stem approach finding a direct link into public scholarship
The STEM approach & Finding a direct link into Public Scholarship

Critique: I'd have to wonder who influences who in such a situation. In other words whose needs/interest comes first, the student, the university or the community?

If action is to take place then students need to be doing something with the processing applications to democracy and public scholarship inquiry. Possibly that is where the Science, Technology, Engineering and society ideas tie in.

social justice awareness
Social Justice Awareness
  • Social justice awareness and perspectives provides clues that recognize the need to teach towards democracy
public scholarship inquiry
Public scholarship inquiry
  • Public scholarship inquiry and social inquiry requires the proper collaboration among and between departments at Universities and within communities
  • It also takes brain power in pre-thought out ideas and proper access to professional engagements, with faculty and proper resources
  • Some say it takes the whole to function together so that synergetic transformations take place to engage in social life in cognitive cooperative and non cooperative ways
  • I do believe public scholarship is necessary in order to keep things moving at the university level, to teach democracy and to live, learn and take action that solve complex societal problems
  • I believe that public discussion needs to take place to bridge the gaps given current tension
  • Only six universities in the United States engage in public scholarship type inquiry; Cornell, Michigan, Minnesota, Penn State, Stanford, and Maryland
science technology society
Science Technology & Society
  • In order to answer the above questions, a research study was conducted with a 3707 Science/Technology/ and Society undergraduate secondary science students
  • Addressing issues of Science/Technology and Society to pre-service secondary science students became an interesting endeavor. Students needed to first find out about issues related to their content in science, how technology modifies them and then how to understand how the issues related to the Science Technology & Society community
constructing public scholarly curriculum
Constructing Public Scholarly Curriculum
  • Students were responsible for researching STS curriculum research articles related to the STS approach and reflect about them
  • Students related the science content to technology issues relating to real world issues and completed a STS project which was presented through power point or another form of creative presentation
science technology and society college course
  • Motivational projects and field trips

The students had a tendency to resort to learning about STS content… Later in the course they became more interested in research that tied into the Science Technology and Society approach

  • Projects:

The projects students picked related to distance learning, grant writing, surveys and video-broadcasting, and a review and presentation of multi-media that can be used in science classrooms to teach with the STS approach.

field trips and presentations
Field trips and presentations:
  • A) a hospital mega-data center in Youngstown, the Youngstown Business Incubator, a company that houses new software companies for six months for free to get them established
  • B) The Curriculum Resource Center at YSU's Beeghly School of Education with a presentation by the librarian who talked about the information technology age related to the history of library science and technology and the science content areas,
  • C) A local grant writer
  • D) A salesman for audio visual projectors, wireless tablets and hand-held personal response systems.
research article s critique and summary
Research Article’s, Critique and Summary:
  • Each student was given an assignment to research, summarize and critique an article related to motivation and STS
  • This assignment made them feel as authentic members of a whole group project. Each summary related to the STS approach in a creative and unique way
  • Some students included personal reflections while others just chose to summarize article relating to the STS and motivation
how can faculty motivate individual and organized influences in public scholarship
How can faculty motivate individual and organized influences in public scholarship?
  • When relating to public scholarship, many articles discussed the need for departments to function as a whole and not separate mechanic parts
  • In order to build healthy environments all teaching faculty should share and engage in the research teaching, and fostering of partnerships with local and state communities and other university departments
  • The article, Teaching Global Citizenship Reflections on the American Indian Housing Initiative, Dr. David R. Riley, architectural engineering and director of the center for Sustainability at Penn State and leader of the American Indian Housing Initiative relating to public scholarship by talking about building houses at a reserve in Montana..this article, a labor of love took place to complete and connect the project to public scholarship

(Although the project was to help build up a community in an Indian reserve, there was some resistance at first by Indians who lived on the reserve. Once the Indians realized the intent of the project they delivered their expertise and helped to build the straw houses. They later used the houses for public resources such as stores and as a place for students from other universities to visit and study)

Heidi’s, Article Summary The article accelerating the Learning of Low Achievers, by Deborah Perkins Gough

This article talks about several different ways that could motivate and encourage low achieving students to do better. Some are:

  • Culture: this is the culture of the school. The high impact schools had a culture of high expectations. Policies focused on academics, and preparing students for college.
  • Academic Core: this is the teachers taking responsibility for students' ability to succeed. They removed barriers from higher level courses and encourage students to take them.
  • Support: they provided extra instructional time to students who needed it. High impact schools provided the help in the form of college prep courses.
high impact schools
High Impact Schools
  • Teachers: High impact schools made assignments to suit the need of the students, instead of having cookie cutter assignments to fit every student
  • Time and other resources: the high impact schools used time more efficiently and deliberately like in the way of college prep courses instead of remedial classes. By incorporating all of these one can see how motivated a school could be. The major part was the staff. Without having an active, motivated, and excited group of people to work with, I don't feel that this program would work. There needs to be an environment of encouragement where students are constantly hearing, “This is possible" and that "They can do it".
katherine s article summary
Katherine’s, Article Summary
  • "Motivational Aspects of Learning Genetics with Interactive Multimedia"
  • This article discussed how motivation can affect the learning and teaching of science subjects, specifically genetics, and about how learning the basic genetic concepts can lead to further issues to investigate such as biotechnology and genetic engineering
  • It stated that biology teachers are increasing their use of technology to supplement their teaching
  • A survey of student interests and motivation was included in the article
  • Students stated they become motivated to learn about genetics when using software that provides them the following: instant feedback, flexibility, visualization, control, and challenges.
  • Teaching basic genetic concepts are important and if technology can be used to enhance lessons that are even better
katherine s critique reflection
Katherine's Critique/Reflection:
  • In this article about using multimedia and motivation to teach genetics a lot of issues were covered. It is very important to motivate students to learn difficult material such as genetics
  • Devising new ways or ideas to motivate students can be difficult
  • Using technology and the multimedia approach is definitely the way to go in order for students to process the lesson the best they possibly can
  • Teaching is about student success, motivation, and understanding. No one ever said that teaching or motivating students is an easy job, but we wouldn't be pre-service teachers if someone hadn't motivated and inspired us to pursue such a career
  • I liked the idea of BioLogica's use in the classroom except that sometimes it is too playful in nature and may distract from mindful activities
  • I'd like to see the software rated by asking questions to see if the technology helps students to think critically, apply the ideas to science theories, laws and principles, or to the concept of Science/Technology/ and Society
mario s article reflection critique
Mario’s, Article Reflection Critique;
  • This article talks of the instructor's role in motivation instead of looking at the students' role in motivation
  • The article entailed cost-effective methods of utilizing differing technologies (projects, power points, video, etc.) into instruction strategies and discusses the fact that many college students are commuters, having the availability of email and other long distance forms of communication increases the teacher/student interaction which can be done more conveniently
  • the article discusses that the instructors influence on motivation among student increases
  • This notion discusses time-delayed communication
  • In the past this was done by a teacher giving homework, the student turning the homework back in, and then the teacher giving feedback (by means of a grade) back to the studentE-mail and other forms of communication can decrease the time-delay communication which can occur over a shorter period of time
bonnie s article summary science technology society approach by gilbert anthony f
Bonnie’s, Article Summary Science/Technology/Society Approach by Gilbert, Anthony F.
  • The technology curricula used today focuses on knowledge domain based science, technology and humanities
  • The emphasis is on tools and materials and the student learns the concepts and vocabulary through text and lectures
  • As a result, students have lost interest in science, as well as school in general; and this has resulted in the closing of schools and programs
  • The students have lost their motivation to learn, thus they are not learning the information and technology that they will need to survive in a technology based world. When the students graduate, they will not be able to work or exist in society
  • The STS approach is society centered, which in itself is the means to the end. The students become motivated when society is incorporated
  • into science, because it then becomes an issue that directly affects them or their families. They are also motivated by the use of the technology as a tool to complement the science curriculum through research and computer programs that allow assignments to expand
  • The students should be taught that the reason to learn science and technology is to be able to use it to solve everyday problems
  • Thus they can make decisions on social and environmental concerns, rather than become a scientific genius or discover new cures
  • A science curriculum should be society based, use technology as a tool, and be saturated in the issues of society that effect the students, their families and futures
julie s article reflection critique
Julie’s, Article Reflection & Critique;
  • The use of flash technology as an assessment tool plays a major role in the success or failure of the student learning process
  • This article suggests using motivational and assessment tools that are more interactive
  • Software applications such as Macromedia's Flash MX and Swishzone's Swish and SwishMAX may be beneficial
  • These applications assist students in creating interactive technology projects and allow them to demonstrate their understanding of key concepts …how to use various theories in context
  • By using various software suggestions students are able to have more insight into their individual progress which aides in improving motivation levels
  • A few of the web sites mentioned in the article include and
julie s critique
Julie's Critique:
  • We all realize that motivation can be intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external). External rewards are useful; however, I believe that if you are able to convince a student to strive for and appreciate internal rewards, you have attained
  • major goal as a teacher
  • I find myself often considering material rewards, such as grades, a good income, etc., but in reality, these items are not everlasting -they fade away with time. The true rewards are those you internalize. Self-satisfaction in accomplishing a goal and the power of knowledge itself are true rewards and motivators. No one can ever rob you of these precious items. I hope to be able to instill the value of these intrinsic motivators in my future students.
  • I liked the idea of exposing students to flash and swishzone
  • Tools such as these can help teachers and students to create using modern software which helps make students more authentic authors of their individual ideas related to science topics and issues
  • In order to demonstrate some aspects of public scholarship as related the STS issues chosen to study in the STS course at the university students would have to incorporate their projects into something worthwhile for university and school classroom settings. The class talked of implementing ideas related to STS problems to types of classrooms on campus and similar classrooms of their own. To make the projects interactive students would have to design them to impact community schools, or businesses
  • This course may have been the pilot to the future courses supported through grant money, enhanced by the application of such research, learning and STS projects related to public scholarship and solving real world community based problems. I found the articles the students reported about of interest for the future types of environments that need to be created for a STS university courses. In this way students can experience the applications to test and use the technology related to solving issues related to the content, technology critiques for critical thinking, and social issues
  • I hope to be able to grow the course into a project that will one day enhance many classroom, teachers, faculty and community. I've included the rubric to the STS projects to show a tie into the types of community issues students need to create
  • My personal interest in this study was to help to build an environment for enrichment for my students and for my own educational purposes. The study helped involve my students when dealing with the Science Technology & Society issues. It is too soon to say how they may relate the content and tie that to the technology and issues for their final projects and in their future classrooms. I believe that this assignment helped them understand the need for the STS approach
poem from the american indian housing initiative
Poem from the American Indian Housing Initiative

An elder Cherokee Indian was teaching his grandchildren about life, He said to them, “A fight is going on inside of me: It is a terrible fight and it is between two wolves. “One wolf represents, fear, anger, envy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego. The other stands for joy, peace, love, hope, sharing, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, friendship, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion, and faith. They thought about it for a minute and then one child asked his grandfather, “Which wolf will win?” The old Indian simply replied, “The one you feed.” ~author unknown